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Greek Palaeography and Book Culture (4th-16th c. CE):

A provisional and (on several subjects) selective Bibliography


Stratis Papaioannou


with special thanks to, and contributions by,

Nadezdha Kavrus-Hoffmann, Niels Gaul, and Foteini Spingou


Send suggestions and/or remarks at:


Ὁ γραμμάτων ἄ¹ειρος οὐ βλέ¹ει βλέ¹ων

Μένανδρος, Γνῶμαι


1. Introduction


Greek Palaeography : The history of ancient Greek script(s) (¹αλαιά γραφή)

within the diachrony of text-transmission

and the synchrony of book culture (technologies, contexts, agents)


ca. 60.000(?) Greek manuscripts

* Richard, M. (1995) RŽpertoire des bibliothques et des catalogues de manuscrits grecs, 3rd. Edition, ed. J.-M. Olivier (Turnhout). (supplement in preparation)

Pinakes: Textes et manuscrits grecs (Institut de recherche et dÕhistoire des textes; Paris) :         


Mediterranean Book Culture

Ipert, S. and B. Marty (eds.) (2005) Les trŽsors manuscrits de la MŽditerranŽe (Dijon).


Bischoff, B. (1986) PalŠographie des ršmischen Altertums und des abendlandischen Mittelalters (Berlin); trans. D. O. Croinin and D. Ganz (1990), Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Cambridge).

Boyle, L. (1999), Paleografia latina medievale: introduzione bibliografica (Rome).

GŽhin, P. (2005) Lire le manuscrit mŽdiŽval : observer et dŽcrire (Paris).


Franklin, S. (2002) Writing, Society and Culture in Early Rus, c. 950-1300 (Cambridge and New York). (medieval Georgian mss.)


Sezgin, F. (1967-84) Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums (Leiden).

Orsatti, P. (1993) ÒLe manuscrit islamique: caractŽristiques matŽrielles et typologie,Ó in M. Maniaci and P. Munaf˜ (eds.), Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18-25 September 1992) (Vatican City) 269-331.

DŽroche, F. (2000) Manuel de codicologie des manuscrits en Žcriture arabe (Paris). [available also in English trans.: 2005]

DŽroche. F. (2005) Le livre manuscrit arabe. Preludes ˆ une histoire (Paris).


Beit-AriŽ, M. (1981) Hebrew Codicology: Tentative Typology of Technical Practices Employed in Hebrew Medieval Manuscripts (Jerusalem).

Beit-AriŽ, M. (1993) Hebrew Manuscrits of East and West: Towards a Comparative Codicology (London).

Sirat, C. (2002) Hebrew Manuscripts of the Middle Ages (ed. and trans. by N. de Lange; Cambridge, U.K. and New York).


see also the following:

as well as this impressive exhibition:


History of the Discipline

Pal¾ographia Gr¾ca, sive De ortu et progressu literarum Gr¾carum, et de variis omnium s¾culorum scriptionis Gr¾c¾ generibus: itemque de abbreviationibus & de notis variarum atrium ac disciplinarum. Additis figuris & schematibus ad fidem manuscriptorum codicum. Opera & studio D. Bernardi de Montfaucon, sacerdotis & monachi Benedictini  congregatione Sancti Mauri É (Paris 1708).

Mabillon, J (1681) De re diplomatica (Paris).

* Gardthausen, V. (1879) Griechische Palaeographie (Leipzig).


Manuals, Handbooks, Brief Introductions

* Thompson, E. M. (1912) An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford).

Van Groningen, B. A. (1963) Short Manual of Greek Palaeography (Leiden).

* Hunger, H. (1961) ÒGriechische PalŠographie,Ó in H. Hunter (ed.), Geschichte der TextŸberlieferung der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur (Zurich) 72–107.

Merkelbach, R. and H. van Thiel (1965) Griechisches Leseheft zur EinfŸhrung in PalŠographie und Textkritik (Gšttingen).

Mioni, E. (1973) Introduzione alla paleografia greca (Padua). Also in updated Modern Greek translation: Εἰσαγωγὴ στὴν ἑλληνικὴ ¹αλαιογραφία (trans. N. M. Panagiotakis; Athens 2004; 2nd ed.).

* Wilson, N. (1973) Mediaeval Greek Bookhands: Examples Selected from Greek Manuscripts in Oxford Libraries (Cambridge, Mass.).

*Canart, P. (1980) Lezioni di paleografia e di codicologia Greca (Vatican City), on-line at:

* Barbour, R. (1981) Greek Literary Hands A.D. 400-1600 (Oxford).

Metzger, B. (1981) Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography (New York).

* Hunger, H. (1997) ÒHandschriftliche †berlieferung in Mittelalter und frŸher Neuzeit, PalŠographie,Ó in H.-G. Nesselrath (ed.), Einleitung in die griechische Philologie (Stuttgart and Leipzig) 17–44.

Litsas, E. K. (2001) Σύντομη εισαγωγή στην Ελληνική ¹αλαιογραφία και κωδικολογία (Thessalonike).

* Easterling, P. and C. Handley (eds.) (2001) Greek Scripts. An Illustrated Introduction (London).

Tselikas, Α. (2004) Θέματα ελληνικής ¹αλαιογραφίας (Athens).

* Wilson, N. (2008) ÒPalaeography,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 101-114.

* Crisci, E. and P. Degni (2011) La scrittura greca dallÕantichitˆ allÕepoca della stampa: una introduzione (Rome).


Palaeography Journals

Scriptorium (Brussels, 1946–). Contains the ÒBulletin codicologique,Ó the only regularly updated bibliography specializing in palaeography and codicology (since 1959). The website,, offers an online search option for manuscripts mentioned in the ÒBulletinÓ (currently up to 2004).

LÕAnnŽe philologique                                      Byzantinische Zeitschrift = BZ

Revue des Žtudes byzantines = REB                 

Manuscripta                                                     Segno e Testo

RSBN= Rivista di studi bizantini e neoellenici Bollettino della Badia Greca di Grottaferrata

Nea Rh™m: rivista di ricerche bizantinistiche Revue dÕhistoire des textes (Paris, 1971–)

Codices manuscripti (Vienna, 1975–)              Scrittura e Civiltˆ = S&C (Rome, 1977–)

Gazette du livre medieval (Paris, 1982-)


Most journals devoted to Classics and Byzantine Studies (GRBS, J…B) also publish articles related to questions of Greek palaeography, codicology, and textual criticism. Of particular importance is the palaeographical section of the bibliography annually published in the BZ; cf. also the Byzantine Zeitschrift online-bibliography.


Websites (Pyle: A gateway to Greek Manuscripts)

            (provides mss. catalogues, facsimiles [including Lake and Lake], books/articles) : ComitŽ International de PalŽographie Grecque (CIPG) : Associazione Italiana dei Paleografi e Diplomatisti (provides up-to-date bibliographies of most Italian palaeographers)


Digitized mss.

            (perhaps the best list of lists: digitized library catalogues and digitized mss. available on-line)

            (with lists of digitized library catalogues and digitized mss. available on-line in English) (another list of digitized mss.) (Catalogue of Digitized Medieval Manuscripts: in various languages, including Greek mss. from England, Munich, Chicago, etc.)

The Digital Scriptorium: (Ògrowing image database of medieval and renaissance manuscriptsÓ)

Cf. various sites listed also below.



Lake, K. and S. Lake (eds.) (1934-39) Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts to the Year 1200 (Boston). 10 volumes

      Partially on line at:

Follieri, E. (1969) Codices Greaci Bibliothecae Vaticanae selecti (Vatican City).

Voicu, S. J. and S. DÕAlisera (1981) I. MA. G. E. S. Index in manuscriptorum Graecorum edita specimina (Rome). Exhaustive bibliographu of reproductions of Greek MSS (up to 1981).

Harlfinger, D. et al. (1983) Specimina Sinaitica. Die datierten griechischen Handschriften des Katharinen-Klosters auf dem Berge Sinai: 9. bis 12. Jahrhundert (Berlin).



(1)       GlŽnisson, J., J. Bompaire, and J. Irigoin (1977) La palŽographie grecque et byzantine, Colloques internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 21–25 octobre 1974, No 559 (Paris 1977).

(2) * Harlfinger, D. and G. Prato (eds.) (1991) Paleografia e codicologia greca. Atti del II Colloquio internazionale, Berlino–WolfenbŸttel, 17–21 ottobre 1983 (Alessandria).

(3) * Cavallo, G. de Gregorio, and M. Maniaci (eds.) (1991) Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali di Bisanzio. Atti del seminario di Erice, 18–25 settembre 1988, Biblioteca del ÇCentro per il collegamento degli studi medievali eumanistici nellÕUniversitˆ di Perugia È 5 (Spoleto).

(4) Oxford 1993 [no full proceedings were published; four art historical papers: Word & Image 10 (1996)].

(5) Prato, G. (ed.) (2000) I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito. Atti del V Colloquio Internazionale di Paleografia Greca, Cremona, 4–10 ottobre 1998, 3 vols. (Florence).

(6) Atsalos, B. and N. Tsirone (2008) Πρακτικά του ΣΤÕ Διεθνούς Συμ¹οσίου Ελληνικής Παλαιογραφίας (Δράμα, 21-27 Σε¹τεμβρίου 2003) (Athens).

(7) Garc’a, A. B., I. PŽrez-Mart’n, and J. S. Codo–er (eds.) (2010) The Legacy of Bernard de Montfaucon: Three Hundred Years of Studies on Greek Handwriting. Proceedings of the Seventh International Colloquium of Greek Palaeography (Madrid - Salamanca, 15 - 20 September 2008) (Turnhout).

(8) VIIIeme Colloque International de PalŽographie Grecque (2013): Griechische Handschriften: gestern, heute und morgen (Hamburg)


Sub-disciplines and Related Disciplines


* Hickey, T. (2008) ÒPapyrology,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 115-128.

* Bagnall, R. S. (2009) The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (Oxford).


For a very useful website (one out of many!), see:




Maniaci, M. (with contr. by C. Federici and E. Ornato) (2002) Archeologia del manoscritto: metodi, problemi, bibliografia recente (Rome).

GŽhin, P. (2005) Lire le manuscrit mŽdiŽval : observer et dŽcrire (Paris).

Gumbert, J. P. (2005) Words for Codices: An English Codicological Terminology (Lopik and Utrecht).

Agati, M. L. (2009) Il libro manoscritto da Oriente a Occidente: per una codicologia comparata (Rome). (includes material on the codicology of Hebrew, Islamic, Coptic and Ethiopian, Armenian, Georgian, Slavic, and Syriac manuscripts)

Crisci, E., M. Maniaci, and P. Orsini (2010) La descrizione dei manoscritti : esperienze a confronto (Cassino)

* Agati, M. L. (2011) ÒΚωδικολογία. Σύγχρονες Κατευθύνσεις και Νέα Ορια,Ó Βυζαντινὰ Σύμμεικτα 21: 195-216.



Dšlger, F. (1956) Byzantinische Diplomatik (Ettal).

Mazal, O. (1974) Die Prooimien der byzantinischen Patriarchenurkunden (Vienna).

Medvedev, I. P. (1988) Ocherki vizantiiskoi diplomatiki : chastnopravovoi akt (Leningrad).

Litsas, E. K. (2006) Palaiographia t™n engraph™n: pinakes metavyzantin™n engraph™n me scholia (Thessalonike).

* MŸller, A. E. (2008) ÒDocuments: Imperial Chrysobulls,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 129-135.

* Morris, R. (2008) ÒDocuments: Athos,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 136-140.

* McKee, S. (2008) ÒDocuments: Venetian Crete,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 141-143.

* Beihammer, A. D., M. G. Parani, and C. D. Schabel (eds.) (2008) Diplomatics in the Eastern Mediterranean 1000–1500: Aspects of Cross-Cultural Communication (Leiden and Boston).

Gastgeber, C. and O. Kresten (2010) Sylloge Diplomatico-Palaeographica (Vienna).

Monastic Documents from Mt. Athos and Patmos:




Oikonomids, N. (1985) Byzantine Lead Seals (Washington D.C.).

Tsougarakis, D. (1999) Εισαγωγή στη Βυζαντινή σφραγιδογραφία (Athens).

* Nesbitt, J. (2008) ÒSigillography,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 150-156.



Mclean, B.H. (2005) An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods from Alexander the Great down to the Reign of Constantine (323 BC - AD 337) (Ann Arbor).

* Mango, C. (2008) ÒEpigraphy,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 144-149.



Georganteli, E. (2008) ÒNumismatics,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 157-175.



The Historical Context

ODB                Kazhdan, A. (ed.) (1991) Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (New York and Oxford).

* Haldon, J. (2005) The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History (London).

* Jeffreys, E., J. F. Haldon, and R. Cormack (eds.) (2008) Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York).

Cavallo, G. (ed.) (2003) Lo spazio letterario del Medioevo. 3, Le culture circostanti, v. 1. La cultura bizantina (Rome).


Early Byzantium / Late Antiquity

Bowersock, G. W., P. Brown, and O. Grabar (eds.) (1999) Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World (Cambridge, Mass. and London).

* Rousseau, P. (ed.) (2008) A Companion to Late Antiquity (Malden, Mass. and Oxford).

* Cameron A., B. Ward-Perkins, and M. Whitby (eds.) (2000) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIV. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425-600 (Cambridge).

Demandt, A. (1989) Die SpŠtantike (Munich) [Abridged version, Geschichte der SpŠtantike (1998).]

Morrisson, C. (ed.) (2004) Le monde byzantin: LÕEmpire romain dÕOrient, 330-641 (Paris).

Johnson, S. F. (ed.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity (Oxford and New York).


Middle and Late Byzantine Period

Haldon, J. (2005) Byzantium. A History (Stroud).

Gregory, T. E. (2005) A History of the Byzantine State (Oxford).

* Cheynet, J.-C. (ed.) (2006) Le monde byzantin: LÕEmpire byzantin, 641-1204 (Paris).

Cameron, A. (2006) The Byzantines (Malden, Mass.).

Shepard, J. (ed.) (2008) The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire, c. 500-1492 (Cambridge).

Stephenson, P. (ed.) (2009) The Byzantine World (London and New York).

* James, L. (ed.) (2010) A Companion to Byzantium (Malden, Mass.).

Laiou, A. and C. Morrisson (ed.) (2011) Le monde byzantin: Byzance et ses voisins 1204 - 1453 (Paris).


2. Early Byzantine Greek Book-hands



* Cavallo, G. and H. Maehler (eds.) (2008) Hellenistic Bookhands (Berlin and New York).

Roberts, C. H. (1956) Greek Literary Hands, 350 B.C.-400 A.D. (Oxford).

Cavallo, G. and H. Maehler (1987) Greek Bookhands of the Early Byzantine Period, A.D. 300-800 (London).


Cavallo, G. (2005) Il calamo e il papiro : la scrittura greca dallÕetˆ ellenistica ai primi secoli di Bisanzio (Firenze).

Cavallo, G. (2008) La scrittura greca e latina dei papiri: Una introduzione (Rome).


Biblical Majuscule: maiuscola biblica

Cavallo, G. (1967) Ricerche sulla maiuscola biblica (Florence). — Cf. the reviews by P. Canart (1970) Byzantion 40: 218–225; J. Irigoin (1970) Scriptorium 24: 67–74; P. J. Parsons (1970) Gnomon 42: 375–380; N. G. Wilson (1971) JEA 57: 238–240.

Orsini, P. (2005) Manoscritti in maiuscola biblica. Materiali per un aggirnamento (Cassino).


(1) Codex Vaticanus (Vatican, gr. 1209) facs.: (1904–07) Bibliorum SS. Graecorum Codex Vaticanus 1209 (Cod. B) denuo phototypice expressus iussu et cura praesidium bibliothecae Vaticanae. Testamentum vetus et novum, 4 vols (Milan).

Skeat, T. C. (1984) ÒThe Codex Vaticanus in the Fifteenth Century,Ó JTS 35: 454–465.

Skeat, T. C. (1999) ÒThe Codex Sinaiticus, the Codex Vaticanus and Constantine,Ó JTS 50: 583–625.


(2) Codex Sinaiticus (London, British Library, ms Add[itional] 43725; Leipzig, UniversitŠtsbibliothek, ms gr. 1 [Codex Friderico-Augustanus]; St Petersburg, Publichnaja Biblioteka, ms gr. 259. ms gr. 2, ms O. 156, ms. gr. 843; Mt Sinai (since 1975)) facs.: Lake, H. and K. Lake (eds.) (1922) Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus et Friderico-Augustanus Lipsiensis. The Old Testament É reproduced in facsimile (Oxford).

For information on a current project to digitally reunite the scattered codex cf.


Milne, H. J. M. and T. C. Skeat (1938) Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus (London).

McKendrick, S. (2006) In A Monastery Library: Preserving Codex Sinaiticus and the Greek Written Heritage (London).

Jongkind, D. (2007) Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus (Piscataway, N.J.).

Parker, D. C. (2010) Codex Sinaiticus: The Story of the World's Oldest Bible (London).


(3) Codex Alexandrinus (1879–83) (London, British Library, MS Royal 1 d. v–viii) facs.: Facsimile of the Codex Alexandrinus (4 vols; London).

Milne, H. J. M. and T. C. Skeat (1938) The Codex Sinaiticus and the Codex Alexandrinus (London).


(4) Codex Bezae (Cambridge, University Library, ms nn. ii. 41)

facs.: Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis quattuor Evangelia et Actus Apostolorum complectens Graece et Latine, sumptibus Academiae [Cantabrigensis] phototypice repraesentatus, 2 vols (Cambridge 1899).

Parker, D. C. and C.-B. Amphoux (1996) Codex Bezae: Studies from the Lunel Colloquium, June 1994 (Leiden).

Parker, D. C. (1992) Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and Its Text (Cambridge).


(5) Washington Gospels (Washington, DC, Freer Gallery of Art, inv. no. 06.274)

facs.: Facsimile of the Washington Manuscript of the Four Gospels in the Freer Collection (Ann Arbor, Mich. 1912);

Sanders, H. A. (ed.) (1918) The New Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection (New York and London).


Nomina Sacra

Traube, L. (1907) Nomina sacra. Versuch einer Geschichte der christlichen Kurzung (Munich).

Paap, A. H. R. E. (1959) Nomina Sacra in the Greek Papyri of the First Five Centuries A.D.: The Sources and Some Deductions (Leiden).

Roberts, C. H. (1979) Manuscript, Society, and Belief in Early Christian Egypt (London and New York).



Allen, Th. (1926) Greek Abbreviation in the fifteenth century (Oxford).

Avi-Yonah, M. (1940) Abbreviations in Greek Inscriptions (The Near-East, 200 B.C.-A.D. 1000) (Jerusalem and London).

Blanchard, A. (1974) Sigle set abbreviations dans les papyrus documentaires grecs: recherches de palŽographie (London).

Oikonomides, A. (1974) Abbreviations in Greek Inscriptions: Papyri, Manuscrits and Early Printed Books: A Manual (Chicago).

Wallace, W. (1923) ÒAn Index of Greek Ligatures and Contractions,Ó Journal of Hellenic Studies 42: 183-93.


Beyond the maiuscola biblica: Majuscule scripts 5th to early 11th c.


The so-called ÒAlexandrianÓ Majuscule

Irigoin, J. (1959) ÒLÕonciale grecque de type copte,Ó J…BG 8: 29–51.

Cavallo, G. (1975) ÒΓράμματα Ἀλεξανδρῖνα,Ó J…B 24: 23–54.

Porro, A. (1985) ÒManoscritti in maiuscola alessandrina di contenuto profano. Aspetti grafici, codicologi, filologici,Ó S&C 9: 169–215.


(6) Codex Marchalianus (Vaticanus graecus 2125; 6th c.: : the Prophets)

facs.: I. Cozza-Luzzi, Prophetarum codex Graecus Vaticanus 2125 É phototypice editus (Rome 1890).

Turner, E. G. (1987) Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World (London).



The ÒOgival MajusculeÓ

— ÔTiltedÕ: Lameere, W. (1960) Aperus de palŽographie homŽrique (Paris) 177–181.

— ÔPerpendicularÕ: * Crisci, E. (1985) ÒLa maiuscola ogivale diritta. Origini, tipologie, dislocazioni,Ó S&C 9: 103–145.

— ÔLiturgicalÕ


Later Forms

Cavallo, G. ÒFunzione e strutture della maiuscola greca tra I secoli VIII–XI,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque (Paris) 95–137.

Cavallo, G. (1972) ÒFenomenologia ÒlibrariaÓ della maiuscola greca: stile, canone, mimesi grafica,Ó BICS 19: 131–140.

DÕAgostino, M. (2000) ÒPer la data e lÕorigine di alcuni codici in maiuscola tarda,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 209–215.


Majuscule ornamental heading scripts

Kresten, O. (1966) ÒDiplomatische Auszeichnungsschriften in SpŠtantike und Fruhmittelalter,Ó Mitteilungen des Instituts fŸr …sterreichische Geschichtsforschung 74: 1–50.

Hunger, H. (1974) ÒMinuskel und Auszeichnungsschrift im 10.–12. Jahrhundert,Ó in La palŽographie grecque (Paris) 201–220.

Hunger, H. (1977) ÒDie epigraphische Auszeichnungsmajuskel. Beitrag zu einem bisher kaum beachteten Kapitel der griechischen PalŠographie,Ó J…B 26: 193–210.


3. Post-classical Greek Books: Objects and Contexts



Atsalos, B. (1971) La terminologie du livre-manuscript ˆ lÕepoche Byzantine (Thessalonike).

Dain, A. (1975) Les manuscrits (Paris).

* Harlfinger, D. (ed.) (1980) Griechische Kodikologie und TextŸberlieferung (Darmstadt).

Bischoff, B. (1990) ÒWriting Materials and Writing Tools,Ó in D. O. Croinin and D. Ganz (trs.), Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Cambridge and New York) 7-47.

Blanck, H. (1992) Das Buch in der Antike (Munich).

Maniaci, M. and P. Munaf˜ (eds.) (1993) Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18-25 september 1992) (Vatican).

Hoffmann, P. (ed.) (1998) Recherches de codicologie comparŽe. La composition du codex au Moyen åge, en Orient et en Occident (Paris).

Maniaci, M. (with contr. by C. Federici and E. Ornato) (2002) Archeologia del manoscritto : metodi, problemi, bibliografia recente (Rome).

Eliot, S. and J. Rose (2007) A Companion to the History of the Book (Malden, Mass.).

Agati, M. L. (2009) Il libro manoscritto da Oriente a Occidente: per una codicologia comparata (Rome).

Gamillscheg, E. (2010) Manuscripta graeca: Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Buches in Mittelalter und Renaissance (Purkersdorf).


A. From the volumen to the codex

Turner, E. G. (1977) The Typology of the Early Codex (Philadelphia).

Roberts, C. H. and T. C. Skeat (1983) The Birth of the Codex (London).

Hurtado, L. W. (2006) The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins (Grand Rapids, Mich.).

Arduini, F. (2008) The Shape of the Book, from Roll to Codex (3rd century BC-19th century AD) (Florence).



Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea Maritima, capital of Palestina I (c. 260-339/340), Life of Constantine, ed. F. Winkelmann (1975). Book 4.36-37:

Νικητὴς Κωνσταντῖνος Μέγιστος Σεβαστὸς Εὐσεβίῳ

. . . ¹ρέ¹ον γὰρ κατεφάνη τοῦτο δηλῶσαι τῇ σῇ συνέσει, ὅ¹ως ἂν ¹εντήκοντα σωμάτια ἐν διφθέραις ἐγκατασκεύοις εὐανάγνωστά τε καὶ ¹ρὸς τὴν χρῆσιν εὐμετακόμιστα ὑ¹ὸ τεχνιτῶν καλλιγράφων καὶ ἀκριβῶς τὴν τέχνην ἐ¹ισταμένων γραφῆναι κελεύσειας, τῶν θείων δηλαδὴ γραφῶν, ὧν μάλιστα τήν τÕ ἐ¹ισκευὴν καὶ τὴν χρῆσιν τῷ τῆς ἐκκλησίας λόγῳ ἀναγκαίαν εἶναι γινώσκεις. . . . Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν βασιλεὺς διεκελεύετο. αὐτίκα δÕ ἔργον ἐ¹ηκολούθει τῷ λόγῳ, ἐν ¹ολυτελῶς ἠσκημένοις τεύχεσι


B. Book production

* Lowden, J. (2008) ÒBook Production,Ó in E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon, and R. Cormack (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 462-472.

* Oikonomides, N. (2002) ÒWriting Materials, Documents, and Books,Ó in A. E. Laiou (ed.), The Economic History of Byzantium (Washington D.C.).



Irigoin, J. (1998) ÒLes cahiers des manuscrits grecs,Ó in P. Hoffmann (ed.), Recherches de codicologie comparŽe (Paris) 1–19.

Mondrain, B. (1998) ÒLes signatures des cahiers dans les manuscrits grecs,Ó in P. Hoffmann (ed.), Recherches de codicologie comparŽe (Paris) 21–48.


Ruling Systems

Leroy, J. (1974) ÒLa description codicologique des manuscrits grecs de parchemin,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque (Paris) 27–44.

Leroy, J. (1977) ÒQuelques sytmes de rŽglure des manuscrits grecs,Ó in K. Treu (ed.), Studia codicologica (Berlin) 291–312.



Leroy, J. (1976) Les types de rŽglure des manuscrits grecs (Paris).

Sautel, J.-H. (1995) RŽpertoire de rŽglures dans les manuscrits grecs sur parchemin (Leuven).



* Petherbridge, G. (1991) ÒSewing Structures and Materials: a Study in the Examination and Documentation of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Bookbindings,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) 363–408.

* Grosdidier de Matons, D. (1991) ÒNouvelles perspectives de recherche sur la reliure byzantine,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) 409–429.

Federici, C. and K. Houlis (1988) Legature bizantine Vaticane (Rome).

van Regemorter, B. (1992) Binding Structures in the Middle Ages (Brussels) 71–105 (ÒLa reliure des manuscrits grecs,Ó first published 1954 in Scriptorium) and 247–312 (ÒLa reliure byzantine,Ó first published 1967 in Revue belge dÕarchŽologie et dÕhistoire de lÕart).

Grosdidier de Matons, D. and P. Hoffmann (1998) ÒLa couture des reliures byzantines,Ó in P. Hoffmann (ed.), Recherches de codicologie comparŽe (Paris) 205–254.

Szirmai, J. A. (1999) The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Aldershot), especially 62–92.

Lowden, J. (2007) ÒThe Word Made Visible. The Exterior of the Early Christian Book as Visual Argument,Ó in W. E. Klingshirn and L. Safran (eds.), The Early Christian Book (Washington DC) 13–47.

Canart, P., D. Grosdidier de Matons, and Ph. Hoffmann (2008) ÒLÕ analyse technique des reliures byzantines et la dŽtermination de leur origine gŽographique (Constantinople, Crte, Chypre, Grce),Ó in M. L. Agati and M. D'Agostino (eds.), ƒtudes de PalŽographie et de codicologie (Vatican) 907-931.

Kotsifou, C. (2012) Bookbinding and Manuscript Illumination in Late Antique and Early Medieval Monastic Circles in Egypt (Leuven).





Irigoin, J. (1953) ÒLes dŽbuts de lÕemploi du papier ˆ Byzance,Ó BZ 46: 314–319.

Irigoin, J. (1950) ÒLes premiers manuscrits grecs Žcrits sur papier et le problme du bombycin,Ó Scriptorium 4: 194–204.

Irigoin, J. (1963) ÒLes types de formes utilisŽs dans lÕOrient mediterraneen (Syrie, Egypte) du xie au xive sicle,Ó Papiergeschichte 13: 18–21.

Irigoin, J. (1968) ÒLa datation des papiers italiens des XIIIe et XIVe siecles,Ó Papiergeschichte 18: 49–52.

Oikonomides, N. (1977) ÒLe support matŽriel des documents byzantines,Ó in La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 385-416.

Harlfinger, D. (1980) ÒZur Datierung von Handschriften mithilfe von Wasserzeichen,Ó in D. Harlfinger, Griechische Kodikologie und TextŸberlieferung (Darmstadt) 144–169.

Irigoin, J. (1988) ÒPapiers orientaux et papiers occidentaux: Les techniques de confection de la feuille.Ó Bollettino dellÕIstituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro 42: 57–80.

Irigoin, J. (1993) ÒLes papiers non filigranŽs : Žtat prŽsent des recherches et perspectives dÕavenir,Ó in M. Maniaci and P. F. Munafo (eds.), Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques, 2 vols (Vatican City) 1 265–312.

Humbert, G. (1998) ÒPapiers non filigranŽs utilisŽs au proche-orient jusqu'en 1450. Essai de typologie,Ó Journal Asiatique 286 (1): 1-54

Humbert, G. (2002) ÒLe manuscrit arabe et ses papiers,Ó Revue des mondes musulmans et de la MŽditerranŽe 99-100 (november): 55-77.

Ornato, E. and C. Federici (2001) La carta occidentale nel tardo Medioevo (Rome).


For Spanish paper, see: Irigoin, J. (1978) Le papier espagnol dans les manuscrits grecs du treizime sicle, in Actas del V Congreso espa–ol de Estudios cl‡sicos (Madrid) 639-642. With Sosower, M. L. (2004) Signa officinarum chartariarum in codicibus graecis saeculo sexto decimo fabricatis in bibliothecis hispaniae (Amsterdam).


Canart, P., S. Di Zio, L. Polistena, and D. Scialanga (1993) ÒUne enqute sur le papier de type "arabe occidental" ou "espagnol non filigranŽ,Ó in M. Maniaci and P. Munaf˜ (eds.) Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18-25 september 1992) (Vatican) 313-394.



Briquet, C.-M. (1907) Les filigranes. Dictionnaire historique des marques du papier des leur apparition vers 1282 jusqÕen 1600, avec. 39 figures dans le texte et 16,112 facsimiles de filigranes (Geneva).

(1952) The Briquet Album; a Miscellany on Watermarks, Supplementing Dr. BriquetÕs Les filigranes (Hilversum).

Gerardy, T. (1964) Datieren mit Hilfe von Wasserzeichen (BŸckeburg).

Harlfinger, D. and J. Harlfinger (1974) Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, I (Berlin).

Matejic, P. (1981) Watermarks of the Hilandar Slavic Codices: A Descriptive Catalog (Sofia).

Piccard, G. (1961-87) Die Wasserzeichenkartei Piccard in Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart FindbŸcher (Stuttgart).


Printed Book

Venice & Aldo Manuzio

Lowry, M. (1979) The World of Aldus Manutius. Business and Scholarship in Renaissance Venice (Oxford).

Barker, N. (1992) Aldus Manutius and the Development of Greek Script & Type in the Fifteenth Century (New York).

Sicherl, M. (1997) Griechische Erstausgaben des Aldus Manutius. Druckvorlagen, Stellenwert, kultureller Hintergrund (Paderborn).


ÔByzantineÕ vs. Erasmian pronunciation

Saladin, J.-C. (2000) La bataille du grec ˆ la Renaissance (Paris).


For an excellent digitized collection of Greek books (including some early ones), see the Greek Digital Bibliography 15th-20th century, at:



C. Writing and Reading Practices

Greco-Roman World

Harris, W. V. (1989) Ancient Literacy (Cambridge, Mass.).

Humphrey, J. H. (ed.) (1991) Literacy in the Roman World (Ann Arbor, Mich.).

Cavallo, G. and R. Chartier (1999) A History of Reading in the West (transl. L. G. Cochrane; Amherst).

Goldhill, S. (1999) ÒBody/Politics: Is There a History of Reading?Ó in T. M. Falkner, N. Felson, and D. Konstan (eds.), Contextualizing Classics: Ideology, Performance, Dialogue. Essays in Honor of John J. Peradotto (Lanham, Md.) 89-120.

Millard, A. (2000) Reading and Writing in the time of Jesus (Sheffield).

Johnson, W. A. (2000) ÒToward a Sociology of Reading in Classical Antiquity,Ó American Journal of Philology 121: 593–627.

Johnson, W. A. (2012) Readers and Reading Culture in the High Roman Empire: A Study of Elite Communities (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).


Early Byzantium

* Rapp, C. (1991) ÒChristians and their Manuscripts in the Greek East During the Fourth Century,Ó in Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto) 127–148.

Vezin, J. (1992) ÒLes livres utilisŽs comme amulettes et comme reliques,Ó in P. Ganz (ed.), Das Buch als magisches und als ReprŠsentationsobjekt (Wiesbaden) 101–106 (on autographs, small-size mss., of holy men in the Latin West from the fourth to the ninth century)

Klingshirn, W. E. and L. Safran (eds.) (2007) The Early Christian Book (Washington, D.C.).


Bartelink, G. J. M. (1999) ÒDie Rolle der Bibel in den asketischen Kreisen des vierten und fuenften Jahrhunderts,Ó in The Impact of Scripture in Early Christianity, ed. J. den Boeft and M. L. van Poll-van de Lisdonk (Leiden) 27–38.

Kotsifou, C. (2007) ÒBooks and Book Production in the Monastic Communities of Byzantine Egypt,Ó in W. E. Klingshirn & L. Safran (eds.), The Early Christian Book (Washington, D.C.) 48-68.


* Sorabji, R. (2000) ÒBibliothques et formes du livre ˆ la fin de lÕantiquitŽ. Le tŽmoignage de la littŽrature nŽoplatonicienne des Ve et VIe sicles,Ó in G. Prato (ed.), I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e dibattito (Florence) 601-32.


Byzantium (in general, with an emphasis in the later periods)

Wilson, N. G. (1975) ÒBooks and Readers in Byzantium,Ó in Byzantine Books and Bookmen: A Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium (Washington, D.C.) 1-15.

* Hunger, H. (1989) Schreiben und Lesen in Byzanz: die byzantinische Buchkultur (Munich).

Hunger, H. and G. Cavallo (eds.) (1990) Libri e lettori nel mondo bizantino (Bari).

Mullett, M. (1990) ÒWriting in Early Medieval Byzantium,Ó in R. McKitterick (ed.), The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge and New York) 156-185.

* Karpozilos, A. (1991) ÒBooks and Bookmen in the 14th c. The Epistolographical Evidence,Ó Jahrbuch der šsterreichischen Byzantinistik 41: 254-276.

* Holmes, C. and J. Waring (eds.) (2002) Literacy, Education and Manuscript Transmission in Byzantium and Beyond (Leiden).

* Cavallo, G. (2006) Lire ˆ Byzance (Paris).

Mondrain, B. (ed.) (2006) Lire e Žcrire ˆ Byzance (Paris).


Western Medieval Europe

Reynolds, S. (1996) Medieval Reading: Grammar, Rhetoric, and the Classical Text (Cambridge and New York).

Amtower, L. (2000) Engaging Words: The Culture of Reading in the Later Middle Ages (New York).


D. Schools

* Cribiore, R. (1996) Writing, Teachers and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt (Atlanta).

Morgan, T. (1998) Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds (Cambridge).

* Cribiore, R. (2001) Gymnastics of the Mind: Greek Education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt (Princeton).

Watts, E. J. (2006) City and School in Late Antique Athens and Alexandria (Berkeley).


Lemerle, P. (1977) Cinq Žtudes sur le XIe sicle byzantin (Paris).

Magdalino, P. (1993) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180 (Cambridge).

Markopoulos, A. (2006) ÒDe la structure de lՎcole byzantine. Le ma”tre, les livres et le processus Žducatif,Ó in B. Mondrain, Lire et Žcrire ˆ Byzance (Paris) 85–96.


Manuscripts in educational contexts?

Cf. Ronconi, F. (2007) I manoscritti greci miscellanei: ricerche su esemplari dei secoli IX-XII (Spoleto).


E. Libraries

Greco-Roman World

Blum, R. (1991) Kallimachos: The Alexandrian Library and the Beginnings of Bibliography (Madison, Wis.).

Casson, L. (2001) Libraries in the Ancient World (New Haven).

Carriker, A. (2003) The Library of Eusebius of Caesarea (Leiden and Boston).

Grafton, A. and M. Williams (2006) Origen, Eusebius, Christianity, and the Transformation of the Book (Cambridge, Mass.).



(1975) Byzantine Books and Bookmen: A Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium (Washington, D.C.).

Irigoin, J. (1975) ÒCentres de copie et bibliothques,Ó in Byzantine Books and Bookmen: A Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium (Washington, D.C.) 17-27.

* Wilson, N. (2008) ÒLibraries,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 820-825.


Monastic libraries

* Volk, O. (1955) Die byzantinischen Klosterbibliotheken von Konstantinopel, Thessalonike und Kleinasien (Munich).

* Bompaire, J. (1979) ÒLes catalogues de livres-manuscrits dՎpoque byzantine (XIe–XVe s.),Ó in Byzance et les Slaves, ƒtudes de civilisation: MŽlanges Ivan Dujcev (Paris) 59–81 (on extant lists of Byzantine monastic and private libraries)

* Monastic typika:


Sinai, Monastery of St. Catherine

BŽnŽchŽvitch, V.N. (1937) Les manuscrits grecs du Mont Sina• et le monde savant de l'Europe depuis le XVIIe sicle jusq'ˆ 1927 (Athens).

Clark, K. W. (1952) Checklist of Manuscripts in St. CatherineÕs Monastery, Mount Sinai (Washington, D.C.).

Kamil, M. (1970) Catalogue of All Manuscripts in the Monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai (Wiesbaden).

Harlfinger, D., D. R. Reinsch, and J. A. M. Sonderkamp (1983) Specimina Sinaitica. Die datierten griechischen Handschriften des Katharinen- Klosters auf dem Berge Sinai. 9. bis 12. Jahrhundert (Berlin).

Nikolopoulos, P. G. (1998) Τὰ νέα εὑρήματα τοῦ Σινᾶ (Athens).



Monastery of Stoudios

Eleopoulos, N. X. (1967) Ἡ βιβλιοθήκη καὶ τὸ βιβλιογραφικὸν ἐργαστήριον τῆς μονῆς τῶν Στουδίου (Athens).

* Delouis, O. (2005) Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Stoudios ˆ Constantinople: la contribution dÕun monastre ˆ lÕhistoire de lÕEmpire byzantin (v. 454-1204) (PhD Thesis; Universit Paris I-PanthŽon Sorbonne) 2 vls.


Mt. Athos Monasteries

Athos Project, EIE:

* Lamberz, E. (2006) Katalog der griechischen Handschriften des Athosklosters Vatopedi 1: Codices 1-102 (Thessaloniki). (includes CD with 374 high-quality color digital images)

Cf. also:

            (the catalogues by Lampros, digitized)  (The Pantokratoros Library: catalogue and some sample ms. images)



Patmos project, EIE:

Komines, A. D. (1968) Πίνακες χρονολογημένων Πατμιακῶν κωδίκων (Athens)

Komines, A. (1970) Facsimiles of Dated Patmian Codices, Eng. ed. by Mark. Naoumides (Athens).



Bees, N. A. (1967-84) Τὰ χειρόγραφα τῶν Μετεώρων (Athens).

Sophianos, D. Z. (2007) Τὰ εἰκονογραφημένα χειρόγραφα τῶν μονῶν τῶν Μετεώρων (Athens).


Leimonos Monastery, Lesbos


especially important: Μορφωτικό Ίδρυμα της Εθνικής Τρα¹έζης, Ιστορικό και Παλαιογραφικό Αρχείο



Western European Collections


Follieri, E. (1969) Codices Graeci Bibliothecae Vaticanae selecti temporum locorumque ordine digesti commentariis et transcriptionibus instructi (Vatican City).

Lilla, S. (2004) I manoscritti vaticani greci: lineamenti di una storia del fondo (Vatican City).


Florence : Biblioteca medicea laurenziana

Fryde, E. B. (1996) Greek Manuscripts in the Private Library of the Medici, 1469-1510 (Aberystwyth).



Omont, H. (1898) Bibliotheque nationale; Departement des manuscrits, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotheque nationale et des autres bibliotheques de Paris et des departements (Paris).


Omont, H. (1892) Fac-similŽs des plus anciens manuscrits grecsÉde la Bibliothque Nationale du IVe au XIIe sicle (Paris).

Omont, H. (1891) Fac-similŽs des manuscrits grecs datŽs de la Bibliothque Nationale du IXe au XIVe sicle (Paris).

The following Greek mss. at Paris are available on-line:

9, 22, 35, 40, 49, 83, 102, 107, 164, 216, 243, 277, 375, 388, 437, 451, 492, 510, 741, 781, 923, 1122, 1128, 1386, 1388, 1402, 1407, 1535, 1550, 1639, 1671, 1685, 1741, 1759, 1767, 1776, 1807, 1853, 1909, 1962, 2003, 2012, 2036, 2179, 2186, 2187, 2261, 2289, 2334, 2389, 2442, 2465, 2556, 2558, 2700, 2703, 2705, 2706, 2712, 2713, 2736, 2737, 2742, 2795, 2809, 2850, 2865, 2868, 2902, 2929, 2934, 2971, 2983, 2999, 3094 ; supplŽment grec 243, 256, 384, 445, 571A, 630-632, 634, 667, 732, 853, 856, 1094, 1189, 1295 ; Coislin 1, 79, 291, 35



Oxford (Bodleian)    High resolution digital images of select Byzantine manuscripts

Cataldi Palau, A. (2011) A Catalogue of Greek Manuscripts from the Meerman Collection in the Bodleian Library (Oxford).


British Library : (more than a 1000 Greek mss. and more than 3000   papyri)                       British Library Digitised Manuscripts


Heidelberg, Codices Palatini graeci


Biblioteca Nacional de Espa–a


Athens, Εθνική βιβλιοθήκη, κατάλογοι:



* Richard, M. (1995) RŽpertoire des bibliothques et des catalogues de manuscrits grecs 3rd. Edition, ed. J.-M. Olivier (Turnhout).


Printed catalogues on-line:

4. ÔFormalÕ / Calligraphic minuscule bookhands


The Historical Context

Wickham, C. (2005) Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400-800 (Oxford and New York).

Brandes, W. and J. F. Haldon (2000) ÒTowns, Tax and Transformation: State, Cities and Their Hinterlands in the East Roman World, ca. 500-800,Ó in N. Gauthier (ed.), Towns and Their Hinterlands Between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Leiden).

Haldon, J. F. (1997) Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture (Cambridge and New York).

Brubaker, L. (1998) Byzantium in the Ninth century: Dead or Alive? Papers from the Thirtieth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Birmingham, March 1996 (Aldershot and Brookfield, Vt.).



Mango, C. (1975) ÒThe Availability of Books in the Byzantine Empire, A. D. 750-850,Ó in Byzantine Books and Bookmen: A Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium (Washington, D.C.) 29-45.

* Brubaker, L. and J. Haldon (with a section on The architecture of iconoclasm: the buildings, by R. Ousterhout) (2001) Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (ca. 680-850): The Sources. An Annotated Survey (Aldershot).

Lamberz, E. (2000) ÒHandschriften und Bibliotheken im Spiegel der Akten des VII. …kumenischen Konzils (787),Ó in: I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 247–63.

Brubaker, L. and J. Haldon (2011) Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era: c. 680 – 850. A History (Cambridge).


Arabic, Syriac, Greek

* Mango, C. (1991) ÒGreek Culture in Palestine After the Arab Conquest,Ó in Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto) 149–160.

Gutas, D. (1998) Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: the Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early ÔAbbøasid Society (2nd-4th/8th-10th centuries) (London and New York).

Magdalino, P. (1998) ÒThe Road to Baghdad in the Thought World of Ninth Century Byzantium,Ó in L. Brubaker (ed.), Dead or Alive? Byzantium in the Ninth Century (Aldershot) 195-213.

Vagelpohl, U. (2008) AristotleÕs Rhetoric in the East: The Syriac and Arabic Translation and Commentary tradition (Leiden and Boston).


Constantinopolitan scholars

* Wilson, N. G. (1983) Scholars of Byzantium (London).

Lemerle, P. (1971) Le premier humanisme byzantin (Paris). Engl. transl., (1986) Byzantine Humanism. The first phase (Canberra).

Odorico, P. (1990) ÒLa cultura della συλλογή. 1) Il cosiddetto enciclopedismo bizantino. 2) Le tavole dei sapere di Giovanni Damasceno,Ó BZ 83: 1–23.

Reinsch, D. R. (2000) ÒLiterarische Bildung in Konstantinopel im 7. und 8. Jahrhundert. Das Zeugnis der Homiletik,Ó in: I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 29–46.



* Ronconi, F. (2003) La traslitterazione dei testi greci: una ricerca tra paleografia e filologia (Spoleto).

Irigoin, J. (2006) ÒUn cas particulier de copie: la translittŽration,Ó in: B. Mondrain (ed.), Lire et Žcrire ˆ Byzance (Paris) 19–24.


Palimpsests       (Rinascimento Virtuale / Digitale Palimpsestforschung: A project for the rediscovery and dissemination of Greek palimpsests)

Crisci, E. (1990) I palinsesti di Grottaferrata. Studio codicologico e paleografico, I-II (Naples).

Tchernetska, N. (2000) ÒA Hand-List of the Greek Palimpsests in Cambridge Libraries,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 733-739.

Netz, R. and W. Noel (2007) The Archimedes Codex: Revealing the Secrets of the WorldÕs Greatest Palimpsest (London).

Lucˆ, S. (2008) (ed.), Libri palinsesti greci: conservazione, restauro digitale, studio ; atti del convegno internazionale, Villa Mondragone, Monte Porzio Catone, Universitˆ di Roma ÒTor Vergata,Ó Biblioteca del Monumento Nazionale di Grottaferrata, 21 - 24 aprile 2004 (Rome).

Somers, V. (2009) ÒLes palimpsestes de GrŽgoire de Nazianze. Heuristique,Ó in V. Somers (ed.), Actes du colloque "Palimpsestes et Žditions de textes: les textes littŽraires". Louvain-la-Neuve, 5-6 septembre 2003 (Louvain-la-Neuve).

Gruskov‡, J. (2010) Untersuchungen zu den griechischen Palimpsesten der …sterreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Codices Historici Codices Philosophici et Philogici Codices Iuridici (Vienna). Cf.



The Script

* Wilson, N. (1973) Mediaeval Greek Bookhands: Examples Selected from Greek Manuscripts in Oxford Libraries I-II (Cambridge, Mass.).

* Barbour, R. (1981) Greek Literary Hands A.D. 400-1600 (Oxford).

Lake, K. and S. Lake (eds.) (1934-39) Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts to the Year 1200 (Boston). 10 volumes of facsimiles The largest collection of Greek manuscript facsimiles. The plates are loose bound and well made.


An important discussion: Per la datazione e la localizzazione delle scritture greche, esp. Wilson, N. G. (2000) ÒThe Interpretation of Scribal Habits,Ó I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 671-710: 685-688.


General accounts

Granstrem, E. (1958) ÒK voprosu o vizantijskom minuskule,Ó VizVrem 13: 222–45.

Irigoin, J. (1966) ÒStructure et Žvolution des Žcritures livresque de lՎpoque byzantine,Ó in Polychronion. Festschrift fŸr Franz Dšlger zum 75. Geburtstag (Heidelberg) 253–265.

Irigoin, J. (1986) ÒDe lÕalpha ˆ lÕomŽga. Quelques remarques sur lՎvolution de lՎcriture grecque,Ó S&C 10: 7–19.

Irigoin, J. (1990) ÒLÕalphabet grec et son geste des origines au IXe sicle aprs J.-C.,Ó in P. Sirat, J. Irigoin, and E. Poulle (eds.), LՎcriture: le cerveau, lÕoeil et la main (Turnhout) 299–305.

Canart, P. (1990) ÒLa minuscule grecque et son ductus du Ixe au XVIe sicle,Ó in P. Sirat, J. Irigoin, and E. Poulle (eds.), LՎcriture: le cerveau, lÕoeil et la main (Turnhout) 307–320.


Origins of minuscule scripts

Cavallo, G. (1970) ÒLa κοινή scrittoria greco-romana nella prassi documentale di etˆ bizantina,Ó J…B 19: 1–31.

Kresten, O. (1970)ÒLitterae longariae quae graece syrmata dicuntur,Ó Scriptorium 24: 305–17.

Kresten, O. (1970) ÒEinige zusŠtzliche †berlegungen zu συρμαιογραφεῖν,Ó BZ 63: 278–282.

Blanchard, A. (1977) ÒLes origines lontaines de la minuscule,Ó in La palŽographie grecque et Byzantine (Paris) 167–173.

Mango, C. (1977) ÒLÕorigine de la minuscule,Ó in La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 175–180.

Mazzuchi, C. M. (1979) ÒSul sistema di accentazione dei testi greci in etˆ romana e bizantina,Ó Aegyptus 59: 145–67.

* Mazzuchi, C. M. (1991) ÒMinuscola libraria. Translitterazione. Accentazione,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) 41–45.

Kresten, O. (1996) ÒDer Geleitbrief. Ein wenig beachteter Typus der byzantinischen Kaiserurkunde,Ó RHM 38: 41–83.

Messeri, G. and R. Pintaudi (2000) ÒI papiri greci dÕEgitto e la minuscola libraria,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 68–82.

Luzzatto, J. M. (2002–03) ÒGrammara e syrmata. Scrittura greca e produzione libraria tra VII e IX secolo,Ó Analecta Papyrologica 14–15: 1–85.


Comprehensive discussions of early minuscule bookhands

Mazzuchi, C. M. (1977) ÒMinuscole greche corsive e librarie,Ó Aegyptus 57: 166–189.

Perria, L. (1996) ÒPer un repertorio dei codici greci in minuscola di erˆ antica,Ó RSBN ns 33: 21–30.

Perria, L. (1997) ÒNuovi testimoni della minuscola libraria greca nei secoli IX–X,Ó RSBN ns 34: 47–64.

Follieri, E. (1997) ÒLa minuscola libraria dei secoli IX e X,Ó in Papers I 136–65 = ead., Byzantina et Italograeca. Studi di filologia e di palaeografia (Rome) 205–48.

De Gregorio, G. (2000) ÒMateriali vecchi e nuovi per uno studio della minuscola greca fra VII e IX secolo,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 83–151.

Harlfinger, D. (2000) ÒWeitere Beispiele frŸhester Minuskel,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 153–156.

Perria, L. (2000) ÒAlle origini della minuscola libraria greca. Morfologia e stilizzazioni,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 157–167.


The regions of early minuscule

a. Palestine & Syria: Egypt/Sinai/Palestine: Documentary Hands>Bookscript (cf. Vat. gr. 2200)

Politis, L. (1980) ÒNouveaux manuscripts grecs dŽcouverts au Mont Sinai,Ó Scriptorium 34: 5-17

Perria, L. (1983–84) ÒIl Vat. gr. 2200. Note codicologiche e palaeografiche,Ó RSBN ns 20–21: 25–68.

Perria, L. (1992) ÒIl Vat. Palat. gr. 376, il Par. Suppl. gr. 1085 e la minuscola antica di area palestinense,Ó RSBN ns 29: 59–72.

Perria, L. (1999) ÒScritture e codici di origine orientale (Palestina, Sinai) dal IX al XIII secolo. Rapporto preliminare,Ó RSBN ns 36: 19–33.

Nikolopoulos, P. G. (1999) The New Finds of Sinai (Athens).


b. Constantinople: Calligraphic Constantinopolitan Minuscule (introduced by former members of state bureaucracy?): Use for all non-liturgical texts, whether Christian or ÒprofaneÓ texts; majuscule continues to be used for liturgical books, especially lectionaries into the first half of the 11th c.

Perria, L. (1994) ÒIl Vangelo di Dionisio. Il codice f. v. 18 di Messina, lÕAthous Stavronikita 43 e la produzione libraria Constantinopolitana del primo periodo macedone,Ó RSBN ns 31: 81–163.


— the Stoudiou monastery: Studite minuscule (Nikolaos style?): (cf. Petr. gr. 219: a. 835; Vat. gr. 2079, Homilies); vertical script or slightly inclined to the left

Čereteli, G. F. (1900) ÒWo ist das Tetraevangelium von Porphyrius Uspenskij aus dem Jahre 835 entstanden?,Ó BZ 9: 649–653.

Granstrem, E. E. (1959) ÒKatalog greeskich rukopisej Leningradskich chranili, 1,Ó VizVrem 16: 233f.

Eleopoulos, N. X. (1967) Ἡ βιβλιοθήκη καὶ τὸ βιβλιογραφικὸν ἐργαστήριον τῆς μονῆς τῶν Στουδίου (Athens).

Leroy, F.-J. (1973) ÒLe Patmos St. Jean 742 (Gregory 2464), un noveau manuscrit de Nicolas Studite,Ó in: Zetesis. Album amicorum dŽdiŽ ˆ E. dy Strycker (Anvers–Utrecht) 488–501.

Leroy, F.-J. (1977) ÒUn noveau manuscrit de Nicolas Stoudite: le Parisinus graecus 494,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 181–190.

Fonkič, B. L. (1980–82) ÒScriptoria bizantini. Risultati e prospettive della ricerca,Ó RSBN ns 17–19: 73–118 (on the Stoudiou monastery pp. 83–92).

Perria, L. (1993) ÒScrittura e ornamentazione nei manoscritti di origine Studita,Ó BBGG 47: 245–260.

Fonkič, B. L. (2000) ÒAux origines de la minuscule stoudite (Les fragments moscovite et parisien de lÕoeuvre de Paul dՃgine,Ó in: I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 169–186.



5. Text Transmission



Pinakes : Textes et manuscrits grecs :


Sinkewicz, R. E. (1990) Manuscript Listings for the Authors of Classical and Late Antiquity (Toronto).

Sinkewicz, R. E. (1992) Manuscript Listings for the Authors of the Patristic and Byzantine Periods (Toronto).

Sinkewicz, R. E. and W. M. Hayes (1989) Manuscript Listings for the Authored Works of the Palaeologan Period (Toronto).

[see also: Sinkewicz, R. E. (1986) ÒThe Greek Index Project of the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies: Present Status and Future Possiblities,Ó Seventeenth International Byzantine Studies Congress, Abstracts of Short Papers (Baltimore) 321-22.]


Cf. Kristeller, P. O. (1993) Latin Manuscript Books before 1600: A List of the Printed Catalogues and Unpublished Inventories of Extant Collections (fourth revised and enlarged edition by S. KrŠmer; Munich).



Studies, General

Hunger, H., O. StegmŸller, H. Erbse, M. Imhof, K. BŸchner, H.-G. Beck, and H. RŸdiger (1961) Geschichte der TextŸberlieferung der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur I (Zurich).


The Greek Bible

Gregory          * Gregory, C. R. (1908) Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments (Leipzig).      

Metzger, B. (1968) The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (New York and Oxford).

Metzger, B. (1981) Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography (New York).

Aland, K. and B. Aland (1989) Der Text des Neuen Testaments: EinfŸhrung in die wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik, 2nd. ed. (Stuttgart).

Rhodes, E. F. (tr.) (1987) The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism (Grand Rapids, Mich.).

Elliott, J. K. (1989) A Bibliography of Greek New Testament Manuscripts (Cambridge and New York).

McKendrick, S. and O. A. OÕSullivan (eds.) (2003) The Bible as Book: The Transmission of the Greek Text (London and Grand Haven, Mich.).


Series: Arbeiten zur neutestamentlichen Textforschung

Websites:      The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (digitized images)

Institute for New Testament Textual Research (University of MŸnster)


A special case: Pericope Adulterae (John 7.53-8.11)

Becker, U. (1963) Jesus und die Ehebrecherin. Untersuchungen zur Text- und †berlieferungsgeschichte von Joh. 7:53–8:11 (Berlin).

* Knust, J. and T. Wasserman (2010) ÒEarth Accuses Earth: Tracing What Jesus Wrote on the Ground,Ó HTR 103: 407-46.

For the single illustration of this scene, see: Florence, Laur. plut. 6.23, f. 184v (11th ce. Tetraevangelion); cf. Velmans, T. (1971) Le TŽtravangile de la Laurentienne, Florence, Plut. VI, 23 (Paris).




Patristic Rhetoric and Hagiography

* Ehrhard, A. (1937-52) †berlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur der griechischen Kirche von den AnfŠngen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig).


* Perria, L. (1979) I manoscritti citati da Albert Ehrhard : indice di A. Ehrhard, †berlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur der griechischen Kirche, I-III, Leipzig-Berlin 1937-1952 (Rome).


BHG    *Halkin, F. (1969) Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca (Bruxelles).

Halkin, F. (1984) Novum auctarium bibliothecae hagiographicae Graecae (Bruxelles).


* Beck, H. G. (1959) Kirche und theologische Literatur im Byzantinischen Reich (Munich).

CPG                 * Geerard, M. (1974-94) Clavis Patrum Graecorum (Turnhout).   


Basil of Caesarea

Rudberg, S. (1981) ÒManuscripts and Editions of the Works of Basil of Caesarea,Ó in P. J. Fedwick (ed.), Basil of Caesarea: Christian, Humanist, Ascetic. A Sixteen-hundredth Anniversary Symposium (Toronto) I 49-65.


Gregory of Nazianzos  (RŽpertoire des manuscrits grecs et orientaux des Discours de GrŽgoire de Nazianze)

Sajdak, J. (1914) Historia Critica Scholiastarum et Commentatorum Gregorii Nazianzeni (Krakow).

Somers, V. (1997) Histoire des collections compltes des Discours de GrŽgoire de Nazianze (Louvain-la-Neuve).

Mossay, J. (1981-98) Repertorium Nazianzenum. Orationes. Textus Graecus, I-VI (Paderborn, Munich, Vienna, and Zurich).

Somers, V. (2000) ÒLa stichomŽtrie des collections compltes des Discours de GrŽgoire de Nazianze,Ó in B. Coulie (ed.), Studia Nazianzenica (Turnhout) I 15-50.


John Chrysostom, ca. 1500 works (including more than 550 spuria; 18 vols. of PG; ca. 7279 mss—though each text is never transmitted in more than a 100 mss.)

Codices Chrysostomici graeci (Paris 1968-). Latest volume: Augustin, P. and J.-H. Sautel (eds.) (2011) Codices Chrysostomici Graeci VII: Codicum Parisinorum pars prior (Paris).

Taft, R. F. (1975-2000) A History of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (Rome).


Eusebios of Caesarea

Cassin, M. (2012) ÒTradition manuscrite grecque de lÕHistoire ecclŽsiastique,Ó in S. Morlet (ed.), Eusbe de CŽsarŽe, Histoire ecclŽsiastique. Commentaire. T. I, ƒtudes dÕintroduction (Paris) 209-242.


The Klimax

Martin, J. R. (1954) The Illustration of The Heavenly Ladder of John Climacus (Princeton).


John of Damascus

Kotter, B. (1959) Die †berlieferung der Pege gnoseos des Hl. Johannes von Damaskos (Ettal).


Symeon MetaphrastesÕ Menologion

Besides Ehrhard (above), see: H¿gel, C. (2002) Symeon Metaphrastes: Rewriting and canonization (Copenhagen).


Euchologia: e.g. Paris, B.N. Coislin 213 (dated to 1027; property of the presbyter Strategios, a priest at St. Sophia in Constantinople; patriarchal typikon?); also Grottaferrata gr. Γ.β. 1 (11th-12th c.), labelled "Bessarion."


Classical Greek texts


Diller, A. (1983) Studies in Greek Manuscript Tradition (Amsterdam).

Lemerle, P. (1971) Le premier humanisme byzantin. Notes et remarques sur enseignement et culture ˆ Byzance des origines au Xe sicle (Paris). Engl. transl. (1986) Byzantine Humanism. The First Phase (Canberra).

Reynolds, L. D. and N. G. Wilson (1991) Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd ed. (Oxford and New York).

* Pšhlmann, E. (1994-2003) EinfŸhrung in die †berlieferungsgeschichte und in die Textkritik der antiken Literatur, 2 vols. (Darmstadt).

* Wilson, N. G. (1996) ÒThe Manuscripts of Greek Classics in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance,Ó Classica et mediaevalia 47: 379-389.

Irigoin, J. (1997) Tradition et critique des textes grecs (Paris).

Cavallo, G. (2002) Dalla parte del libro: storie di trasmissione dei classici (Urbino).

Irigoin, J. (2003) La tradition des textes grecs: pour une critique historique (Paris).

* Gaul, N. (2010) ÒThe Manuscript Tradition,Ó in E. J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language (Chichester and Malden, Mass.) 69-81.

* Bernab˜, M. (ed.) (2011) Voci dell'Oriente. Miniature e testi classici da Bisanzio alla Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (Firenze: Edizioni Polistampa), passim.


Authors (a mere selection)


* Moraux, P., D. Harlfinger, D. Reinsch, and J. Wiesner (eds.) (1976) Aristoteles Graecus. Die griechischen Manuskripte des Aristoteles (Berlin and New York).

Mondrain, B. (2000) ÒLa constitution de corpus dÕAristote et de ses commentateurs aux XIIIe-XIVe sicles,Ó Codices Manuscripti 29: 11–33.

Rashed, M. (2001) Die †berlieferungsgeschichte der aristotelischen Schrift De generatione et corruptione (Wiesbaden).

                        (Teuchos – Zentrum fŸr Handschriften- und Textforschung):   Aristoteles Graecus

An important ms.:

Parisinus gr. 1741: AristotleÕs Rhetoric and Poetics. The ms. also contains DemetriusÕ On Style, the rhetorician Menander, and a few other theoreticians of the Roman Greek period such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus (On Composition) and Longinus (Art of Rhetoric); for a description see Harlfinger, D. and D. Reinsch (1970) ÒDie Aristotelica des Parisinus Gr. 1741,Ó Philologus 114: 28-50. and Irigoin, J. (1997) Tradition et critique des textes grecs (Paris) 171-182.



cf. Joyal, M. The Platonic Textual Tradition: A Bibliography, available on-line

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (2005) ÒEstetica e ideologia nei manoscritti bizantini di Platone,Ó RSBN 42: 113-135.

* Irwin, T.H. (2008) ÒThe Platonic Corpus,Ó in G. Fine, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Plato (Oxford) 63–87.

Vancamp, B. (2010) Untersuchungen zur handschriftlichen †berlieferung von Platons ÒMenonÓ (Stuttgart).



Venetus, A= Marcianus 454



Comparetti, D. (1901) Homeri Ilias cum scholiis : Codex venetus A, Marcianus 454 : phototypice (Leiden).

DuŽ, C. (2009) Recapturing a Homeric legacy (Washington, D.C. and Cambridge, Mass.).


Greek Drama

Cf. Turyn, A. (1943) The Manuscript Tradition of the Tragedies of Aeschylus (New York).

Turyn, A. (1952) Studies in the Manuscript Tradition of Sophocles (Urbana, Ill.).

Turyn, A. (1957) The Byzantine Manuscript Tradition of Euripides (Urbana, Ill.).


Dawe, R. D. (1964) The Collation and Investigation of Manuscripts of Aeschylus (Cambridge).

* Dawe, R. D. (1973-78) Studies on the Text of Sophocles, 3 vols (Leiden).

Zunz, G. (1965) An Inquiry into the Transmission of the Plays of Euripides (Cambridge).


Roman Greek Writing

Ailios Aristides


Medieval Greek texts

Hunger, H. (1978) Die Hochsprachliche Profane Literatur der Byzantiner I-II (Munich).


Byzantine Rhetoric

* Bianconi, D. (2011) ÒÇPiccolo assaggio di abbondante fragranzaÈ: Giovanni Mauropode e il Vat. gr. 676,Ó J…B 61: 89-103.


Legal Texts

Gastgeber, C. (ed.) (2010) Quellen zur byzantinischen Rechtspraxis: Aspekte der TextŸberlieferung, PalŠographie und Diplomatik ; Akten des internationalen Symposiums, Wien, 5.-7. 11. 2007 (Vienna).


Medical mss.

Greek Medical Manuscripts: A database of the manuscripts in DielsÕ catalogue (1905-1908):

Ἰατρικὰ Βυζαντινὰ χειρόγραφα (Athens, 1995).

Touwaide, A. (2010-) Medicine in the Medieval Mediterranean (Farnham and Burlington).


Musical mss.

Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae (with online inventory):

Stathes, G. (1975-), Τὰ χειρόγραφα Βυζαντινῆς Μουσικῆς: Ἅγιον Ὄρος. Κατάλογος ¹εριγραφικὸς τῶν χειρογράφων κωδίκων Βυζαντινῆς Μουσικῆς (Athens)



* Papaioannou, S. (2012) ÒFragile Literature: Byzantine Letter-Collections and the Case of Michael Psellos,Ó in P. Odorico (ed.), La face cachŽe de la littŽrature byzantine. Le texte en tant que message immŽdiat (Paris) 289-328.

6. Ninth century minuscule scripts continued


Philosophical Collection(s), 9th c., 2nd/3rd quarter

            18 mss., 3 groups (A. Aristotle; B. Plato/Neoplatonic; C. Patristic)

Allen, T. W. (1983) ÒPalaeographica III. A Group of Ninth-Century Manuscripts,Ó Journal of Philology 21: 48–55.

Fonkič, B. L. (1980-82) ÒScriptoria bizantini. Risultati e prospettive della ricerca,Ó RSBN 17-19: 83-92: at 93–99.

* Perria, L. (1991) ÒLÕinterpunzione nei manoscritti della ÔCollezione filosoficaÕ,Ó in D. Harlfinger, G. Prato (eds.), Paleografia e codicologia greca, I (Alessandria) 199–209.

Perria, L. (1991) ÒScrittura e ornamentazione nei codici della ÒCollezione filosoficaÓ,Ó RSBN 28: 45–111.

Palau, A. C. (2001) ÒUn nuovo codice della ÒCollezione filosofica.Ó Il palinsesto Parisinus graecus 2575,Ó Scriptorium 55: 249–274.

Cavallo, G. (2005) ÒDa Alessandria a Costantinopoli? Qualche riflessione sulla ÒCollezione filosoficaÓ,Ó Segno e Testo 3: 249–263.

Cavallo, G. (2007) ÒQualche riflessione sulla ÒCollezione filosoficaÓ,Ó in C. DÕAncona (ed.), The Libraries of the Neoplatonists (Leiden and Boston) 155–165.

* Mondrain, B. (2008) ÒLa rŽutilisation de parchemin ancien dans les livres ˆ Constantinople au XIVe et au XVe sicle: quelques exemples, de la "collection philosophique" aux folios palimpsestes du Parisinus gr. 1220,Ó in S. Lucˆ (ed.), Libri Palinsesti Greci: Conservazione, Restauro Digitale, Studio. Atti del Convegno Internazionale (Rome) 111-130.

Ronconi, F. (2008) ÒQualche considerazione sulla provenienza dei modelli della Ôcollezione filosoficaÕ : note a margine del Paris. gr. 1962,Ó in D. Bianconi and L. Del Corso (eds.), Oltre la scrittura. Variazioni sul tema per Guglielmo Cavallo (Paris) 125-142.


Includes: Paris. gr. 1807 (Plato); available on-line at:




ArethasÕ library (ca. 850– ? 943; archbishop of Caesarea from 902)

Maass, E. (1884) ÒObservationes palaeographicae,Ó in: MŽlanges Graux (Paris) 749–766 [good guide to decipher ArethasÕ marginal notes in majuscule script].

Meschini, A. (1972) Il Codice vallicelliano di Areta (Padua).

Fonkič, B. L. (1980-82) ÒScriptoria bizantini. Risultati e prospettive della ricerca,Ó RSBN 17-19: 99–108.

Perria, L. (1988) ÒArethaea. Il codice vallicelliano do Areta e la Ciropedia dellÕEscorial,Ó RSBN ns 25: 41–56.

Perria, L. (1990) ÒArethaea. Il impaginazione e scrittura nei codici di Areta,Ó RSBN ns 27: 55–87.

Follieri, E. (1973-74) ÒUn codice di Areta troppo a buon mercato: il Vat. Urb. gr. 35,Ó Archeologia Classica 25/6: 262–79.

Follieri, E. (1997) Byzantina et Italograeca. Studi di filologia e di palaeografia (Rome) 187–204.


Seven surviving volumes, ca. 888–post 932:

888: Stephanos klerikos, Oxford, Bodleian, DÕOrville 301 (Euclid; 14 gold coins)

895: Ioannes the calligrapher, Oxford, Bodleian, E. D. Clarke 39 (24 dialogues of Plato minus the Republic, Laws, and Timaeus; 21 gold coins)

Allen, T. W. Plato, Codex Oxoniensis Clarkiamus 39, Phototypice Editus 2 vols (Codices Graeci et Latini Photographice Depicti III; Leiden: Sijthoff, 1898-1899). Cf.:

895–901: Gregory, sub-deacon, Vatican, Urb. gr. 25 (AristotleÕs Organon; 6 coins for the parchment);

906/907: Ioannes the calligrapher, Laur. 60.3 and Paris. gr. 2951 (Aelios Aristides)

913/914: Baanes (RGK 1 B 30), Paris. gr. 451 (Early Christian authors, especially Clement of Alexandria; 26 gold coins)

also: Baanes (RGK 1 B 30), Lond. Harl. 5694 (Lucian).





Reynolds, L. D. and N. G. Wilson (1991) Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd ed. (Oxford and New York).

Smith, O. L. (1996) ÒMedieval and Renaissance Commentaries in Greek on Classical Greek Texts,Ó Classica et mediaevalia 47: 391-405.

Dickey, E. (2007) Ancient Greek Scholarship: A Guide to Finding, Reading, and Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises, from their Beginnings to the Byzantine Period (New York and Oxford).

Ronconi, F. (2012) ÒLa Bibliothque de Photius et le Marc. Gr. 450. Recherches prŽliminaires,Ó Segno e Testo 10.


* Gaul, N. (2010) ÒThe Manuscript Tradition,Ó in E. J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language (Chichester and Malden, Mass.) 69-81.

Matthaios, S., F. Montanari, and A. Rengakos (eds.) (2011) Ancient Scholarship and Grammar: Archetypes, Concepts and Contexts (Berlin and New York).

Montanari, F. and L. Pagani (eds.) (2011) From Scholars to Scholia: Chapters in the History of Ancient Greek Scholarship (Berlin and New York); especially: F. Montanari, ÒThe Making of Greek Scholiastic Corpora,Ó pp. 104-162.




- κάλαμος μ᾽ ἔγραψε, δεξιὰ χεὶρ καὶ γόνυ

- ὥσ¹ερ ξένοι χαίρουσιν ἰδεῖν ¹ατρίδα / οὕτως καὶ οἱ γράφοντες βιβλίου τέλος


RGK     * Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten 800-1600 (Vienna: Verlag der …sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-) Part 1, Handschriften aus Bibliotheken Grossbritanniens (1981)

A. Verzeichnis der Kopisten / erstellt von Ernst Gamillscheg und Dieter Harlfinger.

B. PalŠographische Charakteristika / erstellt von Herbert Hunger.

C. Tafeln

Part 2, Handschriften aus Bibliotheken Frankreichs und NachtrŠge zu den Bibliotheken Grossbritanniens. A. Verzeichnis der Kopisten / erstellt von Ernst Gamillscheg und Dieter Harlfinger. B. PalŠographische Charakteristika / erstellt von Herbert Hunger. C. Tafeln.        

Part 3, Handschriften aus Bibliotheken Roms mit dem Vatikan (1997)

A. Verzeichnis der Kopisten / erstellt von Ernst Gamillscheg. B. PalŠographische Charakteristika / erstellt von Herbert Hunger. C. Tafeln.

Cf. Vogel, M. and V. Gardthausen (1909) Die griechischen Schreiber des Mittelalters und der Renaissance (Leipzig).


Metzger, B. M. (1960) ÒWhen Did Scribes Begin to Use Writing Desks?Ó CEB 11: 355–62.

Treu, K. (1977) ÒDer Schreiber am Ziel. Zu den Versen w(/sper ce/noi xai/rousin. . . und Šhnlichen,Ó in Studia codicologica (Berlin) 473-492.

Cutler, A. (1981) ÒThe Social Status of Byzantine Scribes, 800-1500. A Statistical Analysis Based on Vogel-Gardthausen,Ó Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74: 328-334.

Evangellatou-Notara, F. (1982) Σημειώματα ἑλληνικῶν κωδίκων (Athens).

Kadas, S. (1996) Τα σημειώματα των χειρογράφων της Μονής Διονυσίου Αγίου Όρους (Hagion Oros).

Haines-Eitzen, K. (2000) Guardians of Letters: Literacy, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature (New York).

Rapp, C. (2007) ÒHoly Texts, Holy Men, and Holy Scribes: Aspects of Scriptural Holiness in Late Antiquity,Ó in W. E. Klingshirn and L. Safran (eds.), The Early Christian Book (Washington, D.C.) 194-222.

Agapitos, P. A. and O. L. Smith, (1994) ÒScribes and Manuscripts of Byzantine Vernacular Romances: Palaeographical Facts and Editorial Implications,Ó Hellenika 44: 61-80.

7. The Illustrated Book


Late antiquity (3rd-8th c.)



Weitzmann, K. (1959) Ancient Book Illumination (Cambridge).

Weitzmann, K. (1970) Illustrations in Roll and Codex: A Study of the Origin and Method of Text Illustration (Princeton).

Weitzmann, K. (1977) Late Antique and Early Christian Book Illumination (London).


Important Examples

(1) ÒVienna DioscoridesÓ (Vindobonensis medicus graecus 1) facs.: Gerstinger, H. (ed.) (1970) Dioscurides. Codex Vindobonensismed. gr. 1 der …sterreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Facsimile mit Kommentar (Graz) [for a history of the codex, cf. the commentary volume]. Also: (1906) Codex Aniciae Iulianae picturis illustratus : nunc Vindobonensis Med. Gr. I. phototypice editus (Leiden).

Hunger, H. and O. Kresten (1969) Katalog der griechischen Handschriften der …sterreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Teil 2: Codices juridici, Codices medici (Vienna) 37–41 (with bibliography).

Brubaker, L. (2002) ÒThe Vienna Dioskorides and Anicia JulianaÕ in H. Maguire and J. Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds.), Byzantine Garden Culture (Washington, DC) 189–214.

Gamillscheg, E. (2006) ÒJohannes Chortasmenos als Restaurator des Wiener Dioskurides,Ó Biblos 55: 39–44.

Ullmann, M. (2009) Untersuchungen zur arabischen †berlieferung der Materia medica des Dioskurides (Wiesbaden).

For the Dioscorides tradition, see further:!__introduccion---indice


(2) codex Rossanensis (purple codex)

Cavallo, G., J. Gribomont, and W. C. Loerke (eds.) (1985–87) Codex Purpureus Rossanensis,. Codices mirabiles 1; Codices selecti 81, 2 vols (Rome and Graz), especially G. Cavallo, Il codice purpureo di Rossano: libro, oggetto, simbolo / The Purple Codex of Rossano: Book, Object, Symbol, in: ibid. 3–41.

Santoro, C. (1974) Il Codice purpureo di Rossano / testi informativi, didascalie e commenti coordinate (Reggio).


Loerke, W. C. (1961) ÒThe Miniatures of the Trial in the Rossano Gospels,Ó Art Bulletin 43.3: 171-95.


(3) Vienna Genesis (purple codex)

B. Zimmermann, (2003) Die Wiener Genesis im Rahmen der antiken Buchmalerei. Ikonographie, Darstellung, Illustrationsverfahren und Aussageintention (Wiesbaden).


(4) Ilias Ambrosiana facs.: Bandinelli, R. B. (1955) Hellenistic-Byzantine Miniatures of the Iliad (Olten); Ceriani, A. M., A. Calderini, and A. Mai (1953) Ilias Ambrosiana. Cod. f. 205 p. inf. Bibliothecae Ambrosianae Mediolanensis (Bern and Olten).

Cavallo, G. (1973) ÒConsiderazioni di un palaeografo per la data elÕorigine della ÒIliade AmbrosianaÓ,Ó Dialoghi di Archeologia 7: 70–85.

Bare, C. P. (2009) Achilles and the Roman Aristocrat: The ÒAmbrosian IliadÓ as a Social Statement in the Late Antique Period (Tallahassee, Fla.). (Ph.D.; The Florida State University).


(5) Dioscurides Neapolitanus



Middle and Late Byzantium (ca. 9th-15th )



Hutter, CBM 

* Hutter, I. (1977) Corpus der byzantinischen Miniaturenhandschriften (Stuttgart); 1. 2. 3.1–2. Oxford: Bodleian Library (1977–1982); 4.1.–2. Oxford: Christ Church (1993); 5.1–2. Oxford: College Libraries (1997).

Belting, H. (1970) Das illuminierte Buch in der spŠtbyzantinischen Gesellschaft (Heidelberg).

Spatharakis, I. (1976) The Portrait in Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts (Leiden).

* Spatharakis, I. (1981) Corpus of Dated Illuminated Greek Manuscripts: to the Year 1453 (Leiden), 2 vols.

Hutter, I. (ed.) (1996) The Word on the Page (Word & image : a journal of verbal/visual enquiry 12.1 (London and Washington, D.C.).

Nelson, R. (1995) ÒThe Italian Appreciation and Appropriation of Illuminated Byzantine Manuscripts, c. 1200- 1450,Ó Dumbarton Oaks Papers 49: 209-235.

Kadas, S. (2008) Τα εικονογραφημένα χειρόγραφα του Αγίου Όρους (Thessalonike).

Džurova, A. (2011) Manuscrits grecs enluminŽs des archives nationales de Tirana (Sofia).



The Bible

Gospel books and Lectionaries

Galavaris, G. (1979) The Illustrations of the Prefaces in Byzantine Gospels (Vienna).

Nelson, R. S. (1980) The Iconography of Preface and Miniature in the Byzantine Gospel Book (New York).

Carr, A. (1987) Weyl Byzantine Illumination, 1150-1250: the Study of a Provincial Tradition (Chicago).

Dolezal, M.-L. (1991) The Middle Byzantine Lectionary: Textual and Pictorial Expression of Liturgical Ritual (PhD thesis; Chicago).

Canart, P. (ed.) (2011) La bible du patrice LŽon : Codex Reginensis Graecus 1 (Vatican).



* Maris, L. ÒLÕirruption des saints dans lÕillustration du psautier byzantin,Ó Analecta Bollandiana 68 (1950) 153-162.

Cutler, A. (1984) The Aristocratic Psalters in Byzantium (Paris).

Corrigan, K. (1992) Visual Polemics in the Ninth Century Byzantine Psalters (Cambridge and New York).

* Parpulov, G. R. (2004) Toward A History of Byzantine Psalters (Diss.; Chicago).

The Theodore Psalter:


Other Old Testament Books

* Belting, H. and G. Cavallo (1979) Die Bibel des Niketas. Ein Werk der hšfischen Buchkunst in Byzanz und sein antikes Vorbild (Wiesbaden).                Florence, Laur. plut. 5.9 (late 10th c.)

Lowden, J. (1988) Illuminated Prophet Books. A Study of Byzantine Manuscripts of the Major and Minor Prophets (University Park, Pa. and London).

Lowden, J. (1992) The Octateuchs. A Study in Byzantine Manuscript Illustration (University Park, Pa.).

Papadaki-Oekland, S. (2009) Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts of the Book of Job (Athens and Turnhout).

Wander, S. H. (2012) The Joshua Roll (Wiesbaden).    On: Rome, BAV, Pal. gr. 431 (patron: Basil the Nothos?)



Other Liturgical and Devotional Books


Vat. gr. 1613 (Synaxarion):    

(2005) El "Menologio" de Basilio II Emperador de Bizancio (Vat. gr. 1613) (Madrid).

Metaphrastean Lives:

Sevcenko, N. P. (1990) Illustrated Manuscripts of the Metaphrastian Menologion (Chicago).



Martin, J. R. (1954) The Illustration of The Heavenly Ladder of John Climacus (Princeton).


Homilies of John Chrysostom

* Krause, K. (2004) Die illustrierten Homilien des Johannes Chrysostomos in Byzanz (Wiesbaden).


Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzos

* Galavaris, G. (1969) The Illustrations of the Liturgical Homilies of Gregory Nazianzenus (Princeton).

*Brubaker, L. (1999) Vision and Meaning in Ninth-century Byzantium: Image as Exegesis in the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus (Cambridge). On the late 9th-c. Paris. gr. 510; cf. also:Žlies+de+GrŽgoire+de+Naziance.html


Literature (?) and Science

Barlaam and Joasaph

Der Nersessian, S. (1937) LÕillustration du roman de Barlaam et Joasaph, 2 vols. (Paris).



Venetus A= Marcianus 454      Cf.


Comparetti, D. (1901) Homeri Ilias cum scholiis: Codex venetus A, Marcianus 454 : phototypice editus (Leiden).

DuŽ, C. (2009) Recapturing a Homeric Legacy (Washington, D.C. and Cambridge, Mass.).


The Madrid Skylitzes (Bibl. Nac. vitr. 26–2): 574 miniatures ; 1130s or 1140s, Southern Italy (Norman Sicily ?)

* Wilson, N. G. (1978) ÒThe Madrid Scylitzes,Ó S&C 2: 209-219.

Grabar, A. and M. Manoussacas (1979) LÕillustration du manuscrit de Skylitzs de la Bibliothque nationale de Madrid (Venice).

Tsamakda, V. (2002) The Illustrated Chronicle of Ioannes Skylitzes in Madrid (Leiden).

* Boeck, E. (2003) The Art of Being Byzantine: History, Structure and Visual Narrative in the Madrid Skylitzes Manuscript (diss.; New Haven).     (video)


The Bulgarian Manasses

Vaticanus slav. 2: 69 miniatures, dating to 1344-45

            * Synopsis chroniki : Codex Vaticano Slavo 2, 1344-45 / Constantine Manasses ; A. Džurova and Vassja Velinova (Athens : 2007).


Fables and ÒFringeÓ Literature

Morgan Library, MS M.397: cf. Kavrus-Hoffmann, N. (2008) ÒCatalogue of Greek Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Collections of the United States of America. Part IV.1: The Morgan Library and Museum,Ó Manuscripta 52.1: 65–174, at: 101-112.


Ps.-Oppian (early 3rd c.)

Kynegetika : Venice, Marc. gr. 479 (third quarter of the 11th c. > Bessarion) > two post-Byz. copies in Paris (B.N. gr. 2736, 2737).

Anderson, J. C. (1978) ÒCod. Vat. Gr. 463 and an Eleventh-Century Byzantine Painting Center,Ó DOP 32: 192–96.


The Alexander Romance

Oxford, Barocci 17, cf.            * Hutter, CBM, 2.      figures 106f.

Αρχείο του Ελληνικού Ινστιτούτου Βενετίας:



Bernab˜, M. (ed.) (2010) La collezione di testi chirurgici di Niceta : Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Plut. 74.7 ; tradizione medica classica a Bisanzio (Rome).

8. Calligraphic Scripts 10th-12th ce.



Irigoin, J. (1977) ÒUne Žcriture du Xe sicle : la minuscule bouletŽe,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 191–199.

Agati, M. L. (1992) La minuscola ÇbouletŽeÈ, 2 vols (Vatican City).

* Kavrus-Hoffmann, N. (2005) ÒLost and Found Folios of Codex Athens National Library of Greece 2641: Philadelphia, Free Library, Fragment Lewis E 251,Ó RSBN n.s. 42: 93-104.


Pearlscript (Perlschrift) and Liturgical Minuscule

Hunger, H. (1954) ÒDie Perlschrift, eine Stilrichtung der griechischen Buchschrift des 11. Jahrhunderts,Ó in id., Studien zur griechischen PalŠographie (Vienna) 22–32 [reprinted in: Byzantinische Grundlagenforschung (London, 1973), no. 1].

* Kavrus-Hoffmann, N. (1996) ÒGreek Manuscripts at Dumbarton Oaks: Codicological and Paleographic Description and Analysis,Ó Dumbarton Oaks Papers 50: 289-312. (detailed discussions of examples of 11th c. calligraphic hands)


A Constantinopolitan ergasterion (second half of the 11th c.)

Leroy, J. (1991) ÒUn copiste de mŽnologes mŽtaphrastiques,Ó RSBN, 27: 101-131.

Hutter, I. (2000) ÒLe Copiste du MŽtaphraste: On a Center for Manuscript Production in Eleventh Century Constantinople,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e dibattito: 535-586.

* H¿gel, C. (2003) ÒHagiography under the Macedonians: The Two Recensions of the Metaphrastic Menologion,Ó in P. Magdalino (ed.), Byzantium in the Year 1000 (Leiden) 217-232.


H¿gel, C. (2002) Symeon Metaphrastes: Rewriting and Canonization (Copenhagen).

Sevcenko, N. P. (1990) Illustrated Manuscripts of the Metaphrastian Menologion (Chicago).


Ekphonetic Notation

Hšeg, C. (1935) La notation ekphonŽtique (Copenhagen).

Strunk, O. (1966) Specimina notationum antiquiorum (Copenhagen).

Haas, M. (1973) Byzantinische und slavische Notationen (Cologne).

Floros, C. (1970) Universale Neumenkunde, 3 vols. (Kassel).

Ziolkowski, J. M. (2000) ÒNota Bene: Why the Classics Were Neumed in the Middle Ages,Ó Journal of Medieval Latin 10: 74-114.

Lingas, A. (2008) ÒMusic,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies (New York) 915-935.


For musical manuscripts, see, e.g.,

Stathes, G. (1975-), Τὰ χειρόγραφα Βυζαντινῆς Μουσικῆς: Ἅγιον Ὄρος. Κατάλογος ¹εριγραφικὸς τῶν χειρογράφων κωδίκων Βυζαντινῆς Μουσικῆς (Athens)



9. Scriptoria (?): 9th – 12th centuries

Irigoin, J. (1958) ÒPour une Žtude des centres de copies byzantines,Ó Scriptorium 12 : 208-227; 13 (1959) 177-209. (based on codicology)

Fonkič, B. L. (1980-82) ÒScriptoria bizantini. Risultati e prospettive della ricerca,Ó RSBN 17-19: 83-92. (based on paleography)

* Cavallo, G. (forthcoming) ÒLe scriptorium mŽdiŽval: RŽalitŽ et illusionÓ.



Magdalino, P. (1996) Constantinople mŽdiŽvale (Paris).

Magdalino, P. (2007) Studies on the History and Topography of Byzantine Constantinople (Aldershot).


Stoudios (see above)

Eleopoulos, N. X. (1967) Ἡ βιβλιοθήκη καὶ τὸ βιβλιογραφικὸν ἐργαστήριον τῆς μονῆς τῶν Στουδίου (Athens).

Featherstone, J. (1982) ÒA Note on Penances prescribed for Negligent Scribes and Librarians in the Monastery of Studios,Ó Script 36: 258-260.


Theotokos Evergetis

Irigoin, J. (1979) ÒPalŽographie et codicologie. La production dÕun scriptorium de Constantinople peu aprs le milieu du XIe sicle,Ó in: Miscellanea codicologica F. Masai dicata MCMLXXIX (Gand) 175–83.

Lappin, B. C. (1994) ÒTowards a Study of the Scriptorium of the Monastery of the Theotokos Evergetis: Preliminary Remarks,Ó in: M. Mullett and A. Kirby (eds.), The Theotokos (Belfast) 176–97.

Lappin, B. C. (1998) ÒStructure and Dating of Codex Atheniensis graecus 788, Typikon of the Monastery of the Theotokos Evergetis,Ó Scriptorium 52: 330–49.


St. Prodromos/Petra

Kaloukidi, E. (1968) Ò Ἡ βιβλιοθήκη τῆς μονῆς Προδρόμου-Πέτρας στὴν Κωνσταντινού¹ολη,Ó Hellenika 21: 3–39.

Malamut, E. (2001) ÒLe monastre Saint-Jean-Prodrome de PŽtra de Constantinople,Ó in M. Kaplan (ed.), Le sacrŽ et son inscription dans lÕespace ˆ Byzance et en Occident (Paris) 219–33.



10. Provinces: 9th – 15th centuries

Asia Minor

Gamillscheg, E. (1991) ÒHandschriften aus Kleinasien (9.-12. Jahrhundert). Versuch einer palŠographischen Charakterisierung,Ó in : Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto) I 182-201.

Hutter, I. (1995) ÒScriptoria in Bythinia,Ó in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.) Costantinople and its Hinterland, Papers from the Twenty-seventh Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies (Oxford, April 1993), with the assistance of G. Greatrex (Aldershot) 379-396.

* Kotzabassi, S. (2004) Βυζαντινὰ χειρόγραφα ἀ¹ὸ τὰ μοναστήρια τῆς μικρᾶς Ἀσίας (Athens).

Mt. Athos, Various monasteries (already in the 11th ce.)

Lamberz, E. (1991) ÒDie Handschriftenproduktion in den Athosklšstern,Ó in: G. Cavallo, G. De Gregorio & M. Maniaci (eds.), Scritture, libri e testi nelle areeprovinciali di Bisanzio, Atti del Seminario di Erice, 18–25 settembre 1988 (Spoleto) 25–78, pl. I–XIX.

Mt. Sinai

Gerstel, S. E. J. and R. S. Nelson (2010) Manuscript Production on Mount Sinai from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century (Turnhout).


Byzantine Southern Italy

Calabria (Otranto, Capua, Rossano), Sicily (Palermo), near Rome (Grottaferrata)



Devreesse, R. (1965) Les manuscrits grecs de lÕItalie mŽridionale (Vatican City).

Leroy, J. (1978) ÒLes manuscrits grecs dÕItalie,Ó in A. Gruys and J. P. Gumbert (eds.), Codicologica 2. ƒlŽments pour une codicologie comparŽe (Leiden) 52–71.

Follieri, E. (1996) ÒLe scritture librarie nellÕItalia bizantina,Ó in C. Scalon (ed.), Libri e documenti dÕItalia: dai Longobardi alla rinascita delle cittˆ, Atti del Convegno dellÕAssociazione Italiana Paleografi e Diplomatisti (Cividale del Friuli, 5-7 ottobre 1994) (Udine) 61-85.


* Cavallo, G. (2000) ÒBetween Byzantium and Rome: Manuscripts from Southern Italy,Ó in O. Z. Pevny (ed.), Perceptions of Byzantium and its Neighbors: 843-1261 (New York) 136-153.

Canart, P. and S. Lucˆ (eds.) (2000) Codici greci dellÕItalia meridionale, Catalogo della mostra (Grottaferrata, Biblioteca del Monumento Nazionale, 31 marzo – 31 maggio 2000) (Rome).

Cosentino, S. (2008) Storia dellÕItalia bizantina (dal VI allÕXI secolo). Da Giustiniano ai Normanni (Bologna).


- The so-called Anastasios type (from Constantinople to Southern Italy?)

Perria, L. (1991) ÒLa minuscola Òtipo AnastasioÓ,Ó in: Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto) I 271-318.

DÕAgostino, M. (1997) La minuscola Òtipo AnastasioÓ. Dalla scrittura alla decorazione (Bari).

Hutter, I. (2009) ÒPatmos 33 in Kontext,Ó Rivista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici 46: 73-126.


- St. Neilos ÒschoolÓ (St. Neilos of Rossano, ca. 910—September 26, 1004)

Lucˆ, S. (1991) ÒScritture e libri della Òscuola nilianaÓ,Ó in Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto) I 319-387.


- As de pique (late 10th-mid 11th)

Canart, P. (1969) ÒLe problme du style dՎcriture dit Çen as de piqueÈ, dans les manuscrits italo-grecs,Ó in Atti del IV Congresso storico calabrese (Cosenza, 1966) (Naples) 55-69 (= Canart 2008, I, 215-227).

Degni, P. (2002-03) ÒUna nuova testimonianza di scrittura Çad asso di piccheÈ (ADM 1312 SS Archivio Historico, Leg. 223),Ó BBGG n.s. 56-57: 237-239.


- Style of Rossano (12th c.)

Lucˆ, S. (1985-86) ÒRossano, il Patir e lo stile rossanese. Note per uno studio codicologico-paleografico e storico-culturale,Ó RSBN n.s. 22-23: 93-170.

Lucˆ, S. (1989) ÒAttivitˆ scrittoria e culturale a Rossano: da s. Nilo a s. Bartolomeo da Simeri (secoli X-XII),Ó in: Atti del Congresso Internazionale su s. Nilo di Rossano (28 settembre – 1¡ ottobre 1986) (Rossano and Grottaferrata) 25-73.

Cf. further on Grottaferrata

Parenti, S. and E. Velkovska (eds.) (2004) Mille anni di Òrito grecoÓ alle porte di Roma. Raccolta di saggi sulla tradizione liturgica del monastero italo-bizantino di Grottaferrata (Grottaferrata).

Parenti, S. (2005) Il monastero di Grottaferrata nel Medioevo (1004-1462). Segni e percorsi di una identitˆ (Rome).


- Reggio style (12th c.)

            Canart, P. and J. Leroy (1974) ÒLes Manuscrits en style de Reggio: ƒtude palŽographique et codicologique,Ó in La palŽographie grecque (Paris) 241-261.

            Cf. Columbia, Plimpton MS 2


- Madrid Skylitzes (1130s or 1140s)

* Wilson, N. G. (1978) ÒThe Madrid Scylitzes,Ó S&C 2: 209-219.




(from 965, firmly under Byz. rule – 1191: Richard I Lionheart occupies the island; 1192: Richard sells Cyprus to the Knights of the Temple > Guy de Lusignan; 1473: Republic of Venice; 1570: Ottomans)


Constantinides, C. N. and R. Browning (1993) Dated Greek Manuscripts from Cyprus to the Year 1570 (Washington D.C. and Nicosia).


Cyprus/Syria/Palestine: mid-11th-mid-13th c.

Darrouzs, J. (1950) ÒManuscrits originaires de Chypre ˆ la Bibliothque Nationale de Paris,Ó REB 8: 162-196.

Darrouzs, J. (1957) ÒAutres manuscrits originaires de Chypre,Ó REB 15: 131-168.

Canart, P. (1981) ÒLes Žcritures livresques chypriotes du milieu du XIe sicle au milieu du XIIIe et le style palestino-chypriote ÇepsilonÈS&C 5: 17-76 (= Canart 2008: I 677-747).

Canart, P. (1989) ÒLes Žcritures livresques grecques cypriotes du XI eau XVI sicles,Ó in First International Symposium on Mediaeval Cypriot Palaeography (3-5 September 1984) (Nicosia) 27-53 (=Canart 2008: II 853-879)

Cf. Chicago-Karahissar style (olim: Decorative Style, ÒFamily 2400,Ó ÒNicaea SchoolÓ)

Carr, A.W. (1987) Byzantine Illumination, 1150–1250: The Study of a Provincial Tradition (Chicago).

Buchthal, H. (1985) ÒStudies in Byzantine Illumination of the Thirteenth Century,Ó Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 25: 27–102.

Gamillscheg, E. (1987) ÒFragen zur Lokalisierung der Handschriften der Gruppe 2400,Ó J…B 37: 313-21. (some deluxe mss. of this group were certainly produced in Constantinople)

Not all mss. painted in the ÒKarahissarÓ style, are also written in the epsilon style; cf. Columbia, Plimpton MS 9 (fragment, 2 folios, of Barlaam and Ioasaph); late 11th, early 12th c. = Ioannina, Zosimaia School Library (Cod. 1), 141 ff., and Cambridge University Library (MS Add. 4491, 14 folios).

11. καλλιγραφεῖν vs. ταχυγραφεῖν ?

Variations of the Formal styles:

Individual/ÓInformalÓ/ÓScholarlyÓ (?) Hands


10th century

Orsini, P. (2006) ÒΓράφειν οὐκ εἰς κάλλος. Le minuscole greche informali del X secolo,Ó Studi Medievali 47: 549-588.

* Orsini, P. (2008) ÒMinuscole greche informali del X secolo,Ó in Πρακτικά του ΣΤÕ Διεθνούς Συμ¹οσίου (Athens) 41-70.



- Ephraim (RGK III: 196)

Lake, K. and S. Lake (1943) ÒThe Scribe Ephraim,Ó Journal of Biblical Literature 62: 263–268.

Irigoin, J. (1959) ÒPour une Žtude des centres de copie byzantins, ii.2. Le scriptorium dÕEphrem,Ó Scriptorium 13: 177–209, esp. 181–195.

Moore, J. M. (1965) The Manuscript Tradition of Polybius (Cambridge).

* Perria, L. (1977–79) ÒUn nuovo codice di Efrem: lÕUrb. gr. 130,Ó RSBN ns 14–16: 33–114.

Fonkič, B. L. (1980-82) ÒScriptoria bizantini. Risultati e prospettive della ricerca,Ó RSBN 17-19: 83-92.

Prato, G. (1982) ÒIl monaco Efrem e la sua scrittura. A proposito di un nuovo codice sottoscritto (Athen. 1),Ó S&C 6: 99–115 [repr. in: id., Studi di paleografia greca (Spoleto 1994) ch. 2].

Perria, L. (1983) ÒOsservazioni su alcuni manoscritti in minuscola Òtipo EfremÓ,Ó in P. L. Leone (ed.), Studi bizantini e neogreci, Atti del IV Congresso Nazionale di Studi bizantini (Lecce-Calimera, 21-24 aprile 1980) (Galatina) 137-145.


- Venetus A= Marcianus 454



Comparetti, D. (1901) Homeri Ilias cum scholiis : Codex venetus A, Marcianus 454 : phototypice editus (Leiden).

Hecquet, M. (2009) ÒAn Initial Codicological and Palaeographical Investigation of the Venetus A Manuscript of the Iliad,Ó in C. DuŽ, Recapturing a Homeric legacy (Washington, D.C. and Cambridge, Mass.) 57-87.


- London, British Library Add. 36749 (parchment; 10th c., first half)

Gregory of Nazianzos, Letters. Cf. Gallay, P. (1957) Les manuscrits des lettres de saint GrŽgoire de Nazianze (Paris).

Anonymous Professor (ca. 870—ca. 945; 122 letters); cf. Markopoulos, A. (ed.) (2000) Anonymi Professoris Epistulae (Berlin) 22*-25*.


- Florence, Laur. plut. 70.3: Herodotus

Cf. Luzzatto, M. J. (1999) Tzetzes lettore di Tucidide: note autografe sul Codice Heidelberg palatino greco 252 (Bari).


- Palatine Anthology = Anthologia Graeca (ed. Beckby) : now 2 mss. : Heidelberg, Pal. gr. 23 and Paris. suppl. gr. 384. For the main ms. cf. (Heidelberg, Codices Palatini graeci, several digitized MSS)

Preisendanz, C (1911) Facsimile: Anthologia palatina : Codex Palatinus et Codex Parisinus : phototypice editi (Leiden).

Cameron, A. (1993) The Greek Anthology from Meleager to Planudes (Oxford).

* Lauxtermann, M. D. (2003) Byzantine Poetry from Pisides to Geometres: Texts and Contexts. Vol. 1 (Vienna).

Lauxtermann, M.D. (2007) ÒThe Anthology of Cephalas,Ó in M. Hinterberger and E. Schiffer (ed.), Byzantinische Sprachkunst. Studien zur byzantinischen Literatur gewidmet Wolfram Hšrander zum 65. Geburtstag (New York) 194-208.




- Paris, gr. suppl. 469A: Scholia on Gregory of NazianzosÕ Homilies

cf. Mossay, J. (1981-98) Repertorium Nazianzenum. Orationes. Textus Graecus, I-VI (Paderborn, Munich, Vienna, and Zurich).

Smith, J. N. (1987) ÒA Revised List of the Manuscripts of the Pseudo-Nonnos Mythological Commentaries on Four Sermons by Gregory of Nazianzus,Ó Byzantion 57: 93-113.

* Smith, J. N. (ed.) (1992) Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni Commentarii; collationibus, versionum Syriacarum a Sebastian Brock, versionisque Armeniacae a Bernard Coulie additis (Turnhout).

Smith, J. N. (2001) A ChristianÕs Guide to Greek Culture: The Pseudo-Nonnus ÒCommentariesÓ on Sermons 4, 5, 39 and 43 by Gregory of Nazianzus (Liverpool).


Two manuscripts of Ps.-NonnosÕ commentaries are accompanied by illustrations: Jerusalem, Taphou 14 (11th c., second half) and Vaticanus gr. 1947 (12th c.);

cf. Weitzmann, K. (1984) Greek Mythology in Byzantine Art (Princeton) 6-92.

and Vokotopoulos, P. L. (2002) Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem; translated from the Greek by Deborah M. Whitehouse (Athens).


- Vatican, gr. 156: Zosimos (5th/6th c.), New History

Karpozilos, A. (1997) Βυζαντινοὶ ἱστορικοὶ καὶ χρονογράφοι. Τόμος ΑÕ (4ος-7ος αἰ.) (Athens) 340-367.

Forcina, A. M. (1987) Lettori bizantini di Zosimo: le note marginali del cod. Vat. gr. 156 (Milan).


- Venice, Marc. gr. 418 (second half of the 10th c.): Demosthenes

For another contemporary DemosthenesÕ ms. cf. Paris, gr. 2934

Mondrain, B. (2000) ÒJanus Lascaris copiste et ses livres ,Ó in: I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e dibattito: 417-426.

Mazzucchi, C. (2010) ÒPer la storia medievale dei codici biblici B e Q, del Demostene Par. gr. 2934, del Dione Cassio Vat. gr. 1288 e dellÕ ÒIlias PictaÓ ambrosiana,Ó in: The Legacy of Bernard de Montfaucon (Turnhout) 133-141 and 745-749.


- Vatican, gr. 511: Patristic collection


* Constas, N. (2001) ÒÓTo Sleep, Perchance to DreamÓ: The Middle State of Souls in Patristic and Byzantine Literature,Ó Dumbarton Oaks Papers 55: 92–124.

van Deun, P. (2005) ÒLe ÒDe anima et angelisÓ attribuŽ ˆ Eustrate de Constantinople (CPG 7523) : un texte fant™me ?Ó in Sacris Erudiri 44: 219-226.                       * Clavis Patrorum Graecorum


- Florence, Laur. plut. 32.9: Sophocles, Aeschylus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Apollodorus

* Kavrus-Hoffmann, N. (2010) ÒFrom Pre-BouletŽe to BouletŽe: Scribe Epiphanios and the Codices Mosq. Synod. gr. 103 and Vat. gr. 90,Ó in: The Legacy of Bernard de Montfaucon (Turnhout) 55-66 and 693-700.



11th and 12th c.

Wilson, N. G. (1977) ÒScholarly Hands of the Middle Byzantine Period,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 221–239.

* Canart, P. and L. Perria (1991) ÒLes Žcritures livresque des XIe et XIIe sicles,Ó in: Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) 67–118.

Cavallo, G. (2000) ÒScritture informali, cambio grafico e pratiche librarie a Bisanzio tra i secoli XI e XII,Ó in: I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 219–238.

* Bianconi, D. (2010) ÒEtˆ Comnena e cultura scritta: Materiali e considerazioni alle origini di una ricerca,Ó in: The Legacy of Bernard de Montfaucon (Turnhout) 75-96 and 709-717.



            cf. Dšlger, F. (1953) ÒDie Kaiserurkunde der Byzantiner als Ausdruck ihrer politischen Anschaungen,Ó in idem, Byzanz und die europŠische Staatenwelt. AusgewŠlte VortrŠge und AufsŠtze (Ettal) 9-33.

            Also: * MŸller, A. E. (2008) ÒDocuments: Imperial Chrysobulls,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies: (New York) 129-135.


Michael (imperial chancery?)

Morgan, M. (2008) 714 (Cf. Kavrus-Hoffmann, ÒCatalogue of Greek Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Collections of the United States of America. Part IV. 2: The Morgan Library and Museum,Ó Manuscripta 52.2: 207–324

Cf. - Paris, gr. 384: Typikon of Empress Irene Doukaina Komnene (wife of Alexios I Komnenos, empress 1081–1118) for the Convent of the Mother of God Kecharitomene in Constantinople.

- Vatican, gr. 666: a copy of Panoplia Dogmatica composed by Euthymios Zygabenos for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos; cf. Magdalino, P. and R. Nelson (1982) ÒThe Emperor in Byzantine Art of the Twelfth Century,Ó Byzantinische Forschungen 8: 123–83, at 149–51; I. Spatharakis (1996) ÒThree Portraits of the Early Comnenian Period,Ó in I. Spatharakis, Studies in Byzantine Manuscript Illumination and Iconography (London) 18–40, at 28–32; and Parpulov, G. R. (2008) ÒThe Presentation Copies of the Panoplia Dogmatica (Mosq. Syn. gr. 387, Vat. gr. 666),Ó in Paleografia i kodikologia: 300 let posle Monfokona. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii Moskva, 14–16 maia 2008 g. (Moscow) 124–27.


Ioannikios (RGK 1 A 113-114 and 3 A 131) (1100-1130s ?)

* Wilson, N. G. (1983) ÒA Mysterious Byzantine Scriptorium: Ioannikios and His Colleagues,Ó S&C 7: 161–76.

Wilson, N. G. (1991) ÒIoannikios and Burgundio: A Survey of the Problem,Ó in: Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali (Spoleto)447-55.

* Degni, P. (2008) ÒI manoscritti dello ÒscriptoriumÓ di Gioannicio,Ó Segno e Testo 6: 179-248.

Degni, P. (2010) ÒÓIn margineÓ a Gioannicio: nuove osservazioni e un nuovo codice (Laur. San Marco 695),Ó in ALETHES PHILIA. Studi in onore di Giancarlo PRATO a cura di Marco DÕAgostino e Paola Degni (Spoleto) 321-340.

Baldi, D. (2011) ÒIoannikios e il Corpus AristotelicumRevue d'Histoire des Textes 6: 15-26.


Eustathios of Thessalonike (?)

Marc. gr. 460 (coll. 330) and Par. gr. 2702: Parekbolai on the Odyssey

Laur. plut. 59.2 and 59.3 Parekbolai on the Iliad

Marc. gr. 448 : the Suda


Formentin, M. (1983) ÒLa grafia di Eustazio di Tessalonica,Ó Boll-Grott n. s. 37: 19–50.

* Liverani, I. A. (2001) ÒSul sistema di interpunzione in Eustazio di Tessalonica,Ó Medioevo greco 1: 187-197.

Cullhed, E. (2012) ÒThe Autograph Manuscripts Containing EustathiusÕ Commentary on the Odyssey,Ó Mnemosyne 65: 445-461.



See also the Royal Holloway: Porphyrogenitus project (Greek paleography), a web site about a new lexicon of Greek Abbreviations. (

Agati, M. L. (1984) ÒLa congiunzione καὶ nella minuscola libraria greca,Ó S&C 8: 69-81.

12. After 1204


The Historical Context

Herrin, J. (ed.) (2011) Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204 (Farnham).


The Fourth Crusade

* Angold, M. (2003) The Fourth Crusade. Event and Context (Harlow).


The period of exile, 1204–1261

Nicaea: Angold, M. (1975) A Byzantine Government in Exile: Government and Society under the Laskarids of Nicaea (1204–1261) (Oxford).

Epirus: Nicol, D. M. (1957, 84) The Despotate of Epiros, 2 vols. (Oxford).

Trebizond: Miller, W. (1926) Trebizond. The Last Greek Empire (London).


The Palaiologan period, 1259–1453

* Laiou, A. E. (1972) Constantinople and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282–1328 (Cambridge, Mass.).

Nicol, D. M. (1993) The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453 (Cambridge).

Talbot, A.-M. (1993) ÒThe Restoration of Constantinople under Michael VIII,Ó DOP 47: 243-261.

Macrides, R. J. (1999) ÒFrom the Komnenoi to the Palaiologoi: Imperial Models in Decline and Exile,Ó in: New Constantines. The Rhythm of Imperial Renewal in Byzantium, 4th-13th Centuries (Aldershot) 269-282.

Matschke, K.-P. and F. Tinnefeld (2001) Die Gesellschaft im spŠten Byzanz. Gruppen, Strukturen, Lebensformen (Cologne).

* Necipoglu, N. (2009) Byzantium between the Ottomans and the Latins: Politics and Society in the Late Empire (New York).


The final fall (ἅλωσις)

Runciman, S. (1965) The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 (Cambridge).

Schreiner, P. (1998) ÒSchein und Sein. †berlegungen zu den Ursachen des Untergangs des byzantinischen Reiches,Ó Historische Zeitschrift 266: 625–647.


Learning and Book Culture after 1204

Ševčenko, I. (1974) ÒSociety and Intellectual Life in the Fourteenth Century,Ó in M. Berza and E. Stănescu (eds.), Actes du XIVe Congrs International des ƒtudes Byzantines, Bucarest, 6–12 Septembre, 1971, 3 vols (Bucharest), vol 1 65–92.

* Constantinides, C N. (1982) Higher Education in Byzantium in the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries (1204-ca. 1310) (Nicosia).

Ševčenko, I. (1984) ÒThe Palaeologan Renaissance,Ó in Renaissance before the Renaissance: Cultural Revivals of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Stanford) 144-171.

Webb, R. (1994) ÒA Slavish Art? Language and Grammar in Late Byzantine Education and Society,Ó Dialogos 1: 81–103.

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (1995) ÒLe conflit de lÕUnion des ƒglises (1274) et son reflet dans lÕenseignement supŽrieur de Constantinople,Ó Byzantinoslavica 56: 411–422.

* Mergiali, S. (1996) LÕenseignement et les lettrŽs pendant lՎpoque des PalŽologues (1261–1453) (Athens).

Fryde, E. (2000) The Early Palaeologan Renaissance (1261–c.1360) (Leiden).

Gaul, N. (2011) Thomas Magistros und die spŠtbyzantische Sophistik: Studien zum Humanismus urbaner Eliten der frŸhen Palaiologenzeit (Wiesbaden).


Renaissance Italy

Labowsky, L. (1979) BessarionÕs Library and the Biblioteca Marciana: Six Early Inventories (Rome).

Wilson, N. G. (1992) From Byzantium to Italy: Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance (Baltimore).



The Script



* Turyn, A. (1964) Codices graeci vaticani : saeculis XIII et XIV scripti annorumque notis instructi. Congessit enarravit eorumque specimina protulit tabulis ccv phototypice expressis (Vatican City).

* Turyn, A. (1972) Dated Greek Manuscripts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries in the Libraries of Italy (Urbana, Ill.) v. 1. Text--v. 2. Plates. 265 plates.

Turyn, A. (1980) Dated Greek Manuscripts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries in the Libraries of Great Britain (Washington, DC) 126 plates.

Astruc, C., et. al. (1989) Les manuscrits grecs datŽs des XIIIe et XIVe sicles conservŽs dans les bibliothques de France, I. XIIIe sicle (Paris).

GŽhin, P. et al., (2005) Les manuscrits grecs datŽs des XIIIe et XIVe sicles conservŽs dans les bibliothques de France, II (Turnhout).




Wirth, P. (1973) Ò1204 – Ein Epochejahr in der Geschichte der griechischen Schrift?Ó Archiv fŸr Diplomatik. Schriftgeschichte Siegel- und Wappenkunde 13: 151-156.

Prato, G. (1981) ÒLa produzione libraria in area greco-orientale nel periodo del regno latino a Costantinopoli (1204-1261),Ó S&C 5: 105-147 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 31-72): 37 codices (of which 6 secular: 3 rhetorical [Aphthonios, Hermogenes] and 3 of Ps.Zonaras, Lexikon)

* Prato, G. (1991) ÒI manoscritti greci dei secoli XIII e XIV: note paleografiche,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) I 131-149 and II 81-96 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 115-131).

Prato, G. (1981) ÒUn autografo di Teodoro II Lascaris imperatore di Nicea?Ó J…B 30: 249-258.


The Palaiologan Period: General Overviews

* Hunger, H. (1991) ÒDie byzantinische Minuskel des 14. Jahrhunderts zwischen Tradition und Neuerung,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) I 151-161 and II 99-106.

De Gregorio, G. (2006) ÒLa scrittura greca di etˆ paleologa (secoli XIII-XIV). Un panorama,Ó in: Scrittura memoria degli uomini (Bari) 81-138.

Canart, P. (2008) ÒCittˆ e cultura nell' impero Bizantino (324-1453),Ó in M. L. Agati and M. D'Agostino (ed.), ƒtudes de palŽographie et de codicologie (Vatican) 1103-1134.



Calligraphic Scripts

Archaizing formal minuscule hands

Hunger, H. (1977) ÒArchaisierende Minuskel und Gebrauchsschrift zur BlŸtezeit der Fettaugenmode: Der Schreiber des Cod. Vindob. Theol. gr. 303,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 283–90.

* Wilson, N. G. (1994) ÒThe Prague Manuscript of Plato,Ó Studi classici e orientali 44: 23–32.

Prato, G. (1979) ÒScritture librarie arcaizzanti della prima etˆ dei Paleologi e loro modelli,Ó Scrittura e civiltˆ 3: 151–93 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 73–114).

Hunger, H. and O. Kresten (1980) ÒArchaisierende Minuskel und Hodegonstil im 14. Jahrhundert,Ó J…B 29: 187-236.

* Prato, G. (1991) ÒI manoscritti greci dei secoli XIII e XIV: note paleografiche,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) I 131-149 and II 81-96 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 115-131).

Prato, G. (2003) (in collaborazione con G. de Gregorio), ÒScrittura arcaizzante in codici profani e sacri della prima etˆ paleologa,Ó Ršmische historische Mitteilungen 45: 59–102.


The Palaiologina Group

Buchthal, H. and H. Belting (1978) Patronage in Thirteenth-Century Constantinople. An Atelier of Late Byzantine Book Illumination and Calligraphy, Dumbarton Oaks Studies 16 (Washington, DC).

Nelson, R. S. and J. Lowden (1991) ÒThe Palaeologina Group: Additional Manuscripts and New Questions,Ó Dumbarton Oaks Papers 45: 59–68.

Hutter, I. (2008) ÒSchreiber und Maler der Palaiologenzeit in Konstantinopel,Ó in Πρακτικά του ΣΤÕ Διεθνούς Συμ¹οσίου (Athens) 1:159–90.


Theodore Hagiopetrites (end of 13th – early 14th c.): small, vertical, somewhat static archaizing minuscule; some letters are slightly enlarged; and a high percentage of reintroduced majuscule forms

Nelson, R. S. (1991) Theodore Hagiopetrites. A Late Byzantine Scribe and Illuminator, 2 vols. (Vienna).

Carr, A. W. (1981) ÒA Note on Theodore Hagiopetrites,Ó Scriptorium 35: 287-290.

      cf. Columbia Univ., Med/Ren Frag. 49 (fragment of the Gospel of Matthew)


Secular mss. in archaizing styles

Prato, G. (2003) (in collaborazione con G. de Gregorio), ÒScrittura arcaizzante in codici profani e sacri della prima etˆ paleologa,Ó Ršmische historische Mitteilungen 45: 59–102.


Metochitesstil, especially Michael Klostomalles and the imperial scriptorium under Andronikos II (1282–1328)

* Prato, G. (1991) I manoscritti greci dei secoli XIII e XIV: note paleografiche, in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) I 131-149 and II 81-96 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 15-131)

Lamberz, E. (2000) ÒDas Geschenk des Kaisers Manuel II. An das Kloster Saint-Denis und der ÒMetochitesschreiberÓ Michael Klostomalles,Ó in B. Borkopp and T. Steppan (eds.), Λιθόστρωτον. Studien zur byzantinischen Kunst und Geschichte. Festschrift fŸr Marcell Restle (Stuttgart) 155-165.

Lamberz, E. (2006) ÒGeorgios Bullotes, Michael Klostomalles und die byzantinische Kaiserkanzlei unter Andronikos II. und Andronikos III. in den Jahren 1298–1329,Ó in: B. Mondrain (ed.), Lire et Žcrire ˆ Byzance (Paris) 33–48.

On Nikephoros Gregoras: Bianconi, D. (2005) ÒLa biblioteca di Cora tra Massimo Planude e Niceforo Gregora. Una questione di mani,Ó S&T 3: 391-438, at 406-438.

            Vat. gr. 1086 (GregorasÕ texts, some of which transcribed by him; his own scholia added throughout)


Μονή τῶν Ὁδηγῶν, ἡ τῆς Θεοτόκου τῆς Ὁδηγήτριας (*Janin, La GŽographie ecclŽsiastique I.3.199-207) (Constantinople, ca. 1320s to early 15th c.)

Politis, L. (1958) ÒEine Schreiberschule im Kloster τῶν Ὁδηγῶν,Ó Byzantinische Zeitschrift 51: 17-36 and 261-287. (with plates)

Hunger, H. and O. Kresten (1980) ÒArchaisierende Minuskel und Hodegonstil im 14. Jahrhundert,Ó J…B 29: 187-236.

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (2008) ÒEl ÒEstilo HodegosÓ y su proyecci—n en las escrituras Constantinopolitanas,Ó S&T 6: 389-458.

e.g. Ioasaph (RGK II 522)

On the persistence of this style into the Post-Byzantine period see:

Harlfinger, D. (1977) ÒZu griechischen Kopisten und Schriftstilen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts,Ó in La palŽographie (Paris) 327-362, at 332-333.

De Gregorio, G. (1994) ÒAttivitˆ scrittoria a Mistrˆ nellÕultima etˆ paleologa: il caso del cod. Mut. gr. 144,Ó S&C 18: 243-280, at 262-266.




The Αrchimedes palimpsest:

Venice, Marc. gr. 265 (early 13th c.):

textus superior: Ioannes Italos, various philosophical treatises (including a treatise On Rhetoric)

textus inferior: Gregory of Nazianzos, 25 Orations : late 9th c.

cf. Arnesano, D. (2011) ÒErmogene e la cerchia erudita. Manoscritti di contenuto retorico in Terra dÕOtranto,Ó in N. Bianci (ed.), La tradizione dei testi greci in Italia meridionale. Filagato da Cerami philosophos e didaskalos. Copisti, lettori, eruditi in Puglia tra XII e XVI secolo (Bari) 95-111 + 16 pl.


Re-use of earlier mss.

Bianconi, D. (2008) ÒLa controversia palamitica. Figure, libri, testi e mani,Ó Segno e Testo 6: 337-376.



To be added É


After 1453

* Harlfinger, D. (1974) Specimina griechischer Kopisten der Renaissance (Berlin).

Ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ γραφὴ κατὰ τοὺς 15ο καὶ 16ο αἰῶνες = The Greek Script in the 15th and 16th Centuries (Διεθνῆ συμ¹όσια 7; Athens 2000).



Hunger, H. (2000) ÒGebrauchsschriften und Stilisierungsversuche in griechischen Handschriften des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts,Ó in Ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ γραφὴ κατὰ τοὺς 15ο καὶ 16ο αἰῶνες = The Greek Script in the 15th and 16th Centuries (Athens) 11–30.


Greek Writing in Western Europe

Harlfinger, D. (1977) ÒZu griechischen Kopisten und Schriftstilen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts,Ó in La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 327-362 (on the humanist cursive hands that become dominant in the late 15th and early 16th centuries).

Canart, P. (1977) ÒIdŽntification et diffŽrentiation de mains ˆ lՎpoque de la Renaissance,Ó La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 363-369.

Bernardinello, S. (1979) Autografi greci e greco-latini in Occidente (Padua).

Bravo Garc’a, A. (1984) ÒEl Matritensis BN 4636 (N 115), ff. 109-119v del Ion plat—nico; un estudio codic—logico, pale—gr‡fico y cr’tico (II) : notas de paleografia,Ó Faventia 6: 33-78.

Eleuteri, P. and P. Canart (1991) Scrittura greca nellÕUmanesimo italiano (Milan).

Mart’nez Manzano, T. (1998) Constantino L‡scaris. Semblanza de un humanista bizanintino (Madrid).

Modrain, B. (1991-1992) ÒCopistes et collectionneurs de manuscrits grecs au milieu du XVIe sicle,Ó BZ 84/86: 334-390.



13. Individual/Informal (?)/Scholarly Hands (post 1204)


13th- early 14th c.

Hunger, H. (1972) ÒDie sogenannte Fettaugen-Mode in griechischen Handschriften des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts,Ó Byzantinische Forschungen 4: 105–13 (= Hunger, Byzantinische Grundlagenforschung, 1983, II).

Wilson, N. G. (1977) ÒNicaean and Palaeologan Hands: Introduction to a Discussion,Ó in: La palŽographie grecque et byzantine (Paris) 263–267.      Betta-Gamma style

Prato, G. (1981) ÒLa produzione libraria in area greco-orientale nel periodo del regno latino di Costantinopoli (1204–1261),Ó Scrittura e civiltˆ 5: 105–147 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 31–72).

Hunger, H. (1990-91) ÒGibt es einen Angeloi-Stil?,Ó RHM 32/33: 21–35.

* Prato, G. (1991) ÒI manoscritti greci dei secoli XIII e XIV: note paleografiche,Ó in Paleografia e codicologia greca (Alessandria) I 131-149 and II 81-96 (= Prato, Studi di paleografia greca, 1994, 115-131).

Hunger, H. (1995) ÒElemente der byzantinischen Urkundenschrift in literarischen Handschriften des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts,Ó RHM 37: 27–40.

Pieralli, L. (2000) ÒLe scritture dei documenti imperiali del XIII secolo,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e dibattito: I 273-293; Tables, 1-12 (pp. 191-204).

Bianconi, D. (2004) ÒLibri e mani. Sulla formazione di alcune miscellanee dellÕetˆ dei Paleologi,Ó Segno e Testo 2: 311–63.

Agapitos, P. A. (2006) Ἀφήγησις Λιβίστρου καὶ Pοδάμνης. Kριτικὴ ἔκδοση τῆς διασκευὴς ÇἄλφαÈ (Athens) 51-53.

Mondrain, B. (2008) ÒLes Žcritures dans les manuscrits byzantins du XIVe sicle. Quelques problŽmatiques,Ó in Ricordo di Lidia Perria (Rome) III 157-196 ( = RSBN n.s. 44 [2007]).


Galesios, Mount (Turk. Alamandağ): monastic center north of Ephesus (11th – 14th c.)

Halkin, F. (1961) ÒManuscrits Galesiotes,Ó Scriptorium 15: 221–27.


Some important late 13th / early 14th-c. examples:

Oxford, Baroccianus 131 (ca. 1250-1280) (paper); Menander Rhetor, Himerios; BasilakesÕ Progymnasmata, John TzetzesÕ poetry, ManassesÕ Synopsis Chronik, Eumathios MakrembolitesÕ The Story [drama] of Hysmine and Hysminias.

            Letters: Synesios, Michael Choniates, Nikephoros Blemmydes, Theodore Prodromos, (Niketas Magistros), Procopius of Gaza, (Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos), (Theodore of Kyzikos), (Symeon Metaphrastes), Psellos, Michael Italikos, Theophylaktos Simokattes, (Photios), (Basil), Basil and Libanios, Gregory of Nazianzos, Apokaukos


Wilson, N. G. (1978) ÒA Byzantine Miscellany: Ms. Barocci 131 described,Ó Jahrbuch der šsterreichischen Byzantinistik 27: 158-179.

Vatican, gr. 305 (paper ; ca. 1260) (Prodromos)


Escorial, Υ. ii. 10 (several mss.)

            Sideras, A. (2010)ÒDie codices Escur. 265 (Υ II 10) und Marc. XI 22 als †berlieferungszeugen der Lobrede des Gregorios Antiochos an den Patriarchen Basileios Kamateros,Ó Revue dÕhistoire des textes 5: 43-64.

Basel, UB gr. 46 (A. III. 20)

            Schšnauer, S. (2000) ÒZum Eustathios-Codex Basileensis,Ó J…B 50: 231-241.

Florence, Laur. plut. 32.16 (ca. 1280; circle of Planoudes); NonnosÕ Dionysiaka, ApolloniosÕ Argonautika, Hesiod, Oppian, Gregory of NazianzosÕ poetry etc.

Florence, Laur. Conv. Soppr. 627 (Betta-Gamma style)

Venice, Marcianus 524 (ca. 1280 and 1290)

Letters: Arethas, Psellos; 11th- and 12th-century poetry including poems by Theodore Prodromos, Konstantinos Stilbes, and Konstantinos Manasses

Odorico, P. and C. Messis (2003) ÒLÕAnthologie Comnne du Cod. Marc. Gr. 524: Problmes dՎdition et problmes dՎvaluation,Ó in W. Hšrandner and M. GrŸnbart (eds.), LՎpistolographie et la poŽsie Žpigrammatique: Projets actuels et questions de mŽthodologie. Actes de la 16e Table ronde du XXe Congrs international des ƒtudes byzantines (Paris) 191-213.

* Rhoby, A. (2010) ÒZur Identifizierung von bekannten Autoren im Codex Marcianus graecus 524,Ó MEG 10: 167-204.

* Spingou, F. (2012) Words and Artworks in the Twelfth Century and Beyond: The Thirteenth-century Manuscript Marcianus gr. 524 and the Twelfth-century Dedicatory Epigrams on Works of Art (PhD Thesis; Oxford).


Theodora Palaiologina Rhaoulaina (ca. 1240—1300, Constantinople)

      Vatican, gr. 1899 (Ailios Aristides), copied by her

      Moscow, Historical Museum gr. 3649 (Aristotle, Physics) copied under her supervision; cf. Fonkič, B. L. 1974 (VV 36: 134-138; plate at 137)

Talbot, A.-M. (1984) ÒBluestocking Nuns: Intellectual Life in the Convents of Late Byzantium,Ó in C. Mango and O. Pritsak (eds.), Okeanos: Essays Presented to Ihor Sevcenko on His Sixtieth Birthday (Cambridge, Mass.) 604–18.

Schreiner, P. (1999) ÒKopistinnen in Byzanz. Mit einer Anmerkung zur Schreiberin Eugenia im Par. lat. 7560,Ó RSBN n.s. 36: 35-45, at 37-38.


Cf. Gregory of Cyprus (Cyprus ca.1241—1290, Constantinople; Patriarch: Mar. 1283–June 1289)

Lameere, W. (1937) La tradition manuscrite de la correspondance de GrŽgoire de Chypre (Brussels and Rome).

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (1996) El patriarca Gregorio de Chipre (ca. 1240–1290) y la transmisi—n de los textos cl‡sicos en Bizancio (Madrid).

Kotzabassi, S. (1998) Die handschriftliche †berlieferung der rhetorischen und hagiographischen Werke des Gregor von Zypern (Wiesbaden).


Maximos Planoudes (ca. 1250ca. 1305)

Cf. Vatican, Reg. gr. 132 (autograph; PlanoudesÕ Greek translation of OvidÕs Metamorphoses)

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (1989) ÒPlanudes y el monasterio de Acatalepto. A prop—sito del Monacensis gr. 430 de Tucidides (½. 4–5 y 83–5),Ó Erytheia 10.2: 303–3087.

PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (1997) ÒLa Òescuela de PlanudesÓ: Notas paleogr‡ficas a una publicaci—n reciente sobre los escolios euripideos,Ó BZ 90: 73–96.

Mondrain, B. (2002) ÒMaxime Planude, NicŽphore GrŽgoras et PtolŽmŽe,Ó in P. Schreiner and O. Strakhov (eds.), Χρυσαῖ ¹ύλαι – Златая врата. Essays to Ihor Ševčenko on His Eightieth Birthday by His Colleagues and Students (Cambridge, Mass.) 312–22.

Bianconi, D. (2005) ÒLa biblioteca di Cora tra Massimo Planude e Niceforo Gregora. Una questione di mani,Ó S&T 3: 391-438.

Karla, G. A. (2006) ÒMaximos Planoudes: Dr. Bowdler in Byzanz? Zensur und Innovation im SpŠten Byzanz,Ó Classica et mediaevalia 57: 213-238.



PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (2000) ÒEl Òestilo SalonicenseÓ: Un modo de escribir en la Sal—nica del siglo XIV,Ó in I manoscritti greci tra riflessione e debattito (Florence) 311–31.

* Bianconi, D. (2005) Tessalonica nellÕetˆ dei Paleologi. Le pratiche intellettuali nel rißesso della cultura scritta, Dossiers byzantins, 5 (Paris).


John Pothos Pediasimos

Cf. Vatican, gr. 64 (1269-1270 in Thessalonike); cf. Bianconi, D. (2004) ÒLibri e mani. Sulla formazione di alcune miscellanee dellÕetˆ dei Paleologi,Ó Segno e Testo 2: 311–63 (esp. p. 335-341)

Vatican, gr. 191 with *PŽrez-Mart’n, I. (2010) ÒLՎcriture de lÕHypatos Jean Pothos PŽdiasimos dÕaprs ses scholies aux Elementa dÕEuclide,Ó Scriptorium 64: 109-119.

and Vatican, gr. 1891


Demetrios Triklinios (Triklines) (fl. 1308–ca. 1330)

Smith, O. L. (1975) Studies in the Scholia on Aeschylus I: The Recensions of Demetrius Triclinius (Leiden)

Wilson, N. G. (1978) ÒPlanudes and Triclinius,Ó GRBS 19: 389–94.

Shotwell, M. H. (1982) On the Originality of Demetrius Triclinius in Editing and Commenting on the Byzantine Triad of Aeschylus (diss., Brown Univ. Providence, R.I.).

Wilson, N. G. (1981) ÒMiscellanea Palaeographica, I: Planudes and Triclinius again,Ó GRBS 22: 395–7.

Smith, O. L. (1981-82) ÒTricliniana,Ó Classica & Mediaevalia 33: 239–62.

Smith, O. L. (1992) ÒTricliniana II,Ó Classica & Mediaevalia 43: 187–229.

Smith, O. L. (1994) ÒThe Development of Demetrius TricliniusÕ Script Style: Remarks on Some Criteria,Ó Classica & Mediaevalia 45: 239–50.



Ševčenko, I. (1960) ÒThe Author's Draft of Nicolas Cabasilas' "Anti-zealot" Discourse in Parisinus Graecus 1276,Ó DOP 14: 181-201.

Canart, P. and G. Prato (1981) ÒLes recueils organisŽs par Jean ChortasmŽnos et le problme de ses autographes,Ó in Hunger H. (ed.) Studien zum Patriarchatsregister von Konstantinopel (Vienna) 115-178.

Harlfinger, D. (1996) ÒAutographa aus der Palaiologenzeit,Ò in W. Seibt (ed.), Geschichte und Kultur der Palaiologenzeit (Vienna) 43-50.

Fonkič, B. L. (1999) ÒLes autographes de Philotheos Kokkinos, patriarche de Constantinople,Ó in Manuscrits Grecs dans les Collections EuropŽenes. ƒtudes PalŽographiques et Codicologiques 1988–1998 (Moscow) 78–92 = ÒGli autografi del patriarca di Costantinopoli Philotheos Kokkinos,Ó in S. Lucˆ and L. Perria (eds.), Ὀ¹ώρα. Studi in onore di mgr Paul Canart per il LXX compleanno (Grottaferrata) III 239-254.

Mondrain, B. (2000) ÒLa constitution de corpus dÕAristote et de ses commentateurs aux XIIIe-XIVe sicles,Ó Codices Manuscripti 29: 11–33.


Vernacular literature

Agapitos, P. A. and O. L. Smith (1994) ÒScribes and Manuscripts of Byzantine Vernacular Romances: Palaeographical Facts and Editorial Implications,Ó Hellenika 44: 61-80.

14. Textual Criticism



Greetham, D. (1994) Textual Scholarship: An Introduction (New York).


The History of a ÒScienceÓ

Pfeiffer, R. (1968) History of Classical Scholarship: From the Beginning to the End of the Hellenistic Age (Oxford).

Kenney, E. J. (1974) The Classical Text: Aspects of Editing in the Age of the Printed Book (Berkeley).

Pfeiffer, R. (1976) History of Classical Scholarship from 1300 to 1850 (Oxford).

Timpanaro, S. (1981) La genesi del metodo di Lachmann (Padua) [Now available in an excellent English transl. by G. W. Most, The Genesis of LachmannÕs Method (Chicago 2006) – includes an introductory essay on Timpanaro as an Italian intellectual].

Cf.       Pasquali, G. (1934) Stor“a della tradiz’one e critica del testo (Florence).

Reeve, M. D. (1986) ÒStemmatic method: ÒQualcosa che non funzionaÓ?,Ó in P. Ganz (ed.), The Role of the Book in Medieval Culture (Turnhout) vol. 1 57–69.

Grier, J. (1988) ÒLachmann, BŽdier and the Bipartite Stemma: towards a responsible application of the common-error method,Ó Revue dÕhistoire des textes 18: 263–78.

* Pšhlmann, E. (2003) ÒTextkritik und Texte im 19. und 20. Jh.Ó in EinfŸhrung in die †berlieferungsgeschichte II: 137f.

Brief Biographies of ÒTextual CriticsÓ (e.g. : Erasmus, Estienne, Gregory, Aland):



recensio codicum         collatio (direct and indirect tradition)               eliminatio

            conjunctive and separative errors (variants)

creation of stemma or family tree

vertical and horizontal (contaminatio) transmission


Some Ç rules È :

lectio difficilior             codex optimus 

lectio antiquior                        usus scribendi


Identification of a Text

TLG                             Thesaurus Linguae Graecae:

Baur, C. (1955) Initia Patrum Graecorum, 2 vols. (Vatican City).

CPG                             * Geerard, M. (1974-94) Clavis Patrum Graecorum (Turnhout).

BHG                            * Halkin, F. (1957) Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca (Brussels).

BHG Auct.                   Halkin, F. (1969) Auctarium Bibliothecae Hagiographicae Graecae (Brussels).

BHG Nov. Auct.           Halkin, F. (1984) Novum Auctarium Bibliothecae Hagiographicae Graecae (Brussels).

Follieri                         Follieri, E. (1960-66) Initia Hymnorum Ecclesiae Graecae (Rome).

Papaeliopoulou-Photopoulou, E. (1996) Ταμεῖoν ἀνεκδότων βυζαντινῶν ᾀσματικῶν κανόνων seu Analecta Hymnica Graeca e codicibus eruta Orientis Christiani, Ι. Κανόνες Μηναίων (Athens).

GrŸnbart, M. (2001) Epistularum byzantinarum initia (Hildesheim and New York).

Vassis, I. (2005) Initia carminum Byzantinorum (Berlin and New York).


Technical Matters

Bidez, J. and E. A. Drachmann (1938) Emploi des signes critiques, disposition de lÕapparat dans les Žditions savantes de textes grecs et Latins, conseils et recommendations. Edition nouvelle par A. Delatte et A. Severyns (Brussels and Paris).

Dow, S. (1969) Conventions in Editing; A Suggested Reformulation of the Leiden System (Durham, N. C.).

* Shubert, P. (2009) ÒEditing a Papyrus,Ó in Bagnall, The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (New York) 197-215.



The Classics

Maas, P. (1950) Textkritik (Leipzig).

Flower, B. (tr.) (1963) Textual Criticism (Oxford).

* West, M. L. (1973) Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique Applicable to Greek and Latin Texts (Stuttgart and Leipzig).

Reynolds, L. D. and N. G. Wilson (1991) Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd ed. (Oxford and New York) 207-241.

Reeve, M. D. (1996) ÒTextual Criticism,Ó in The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford).



The Bible

Aland, K. and B. Aland, (1987) The Text of the New Testament: an Introduction to the Critical editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism (transl. by E. F. Rhodes; Grand Rapids, Mich.).


Byzantine Texts

(1968) ÒAnnexe no. 4: Rgles pour la publication des teste dans le Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae,Ó Bulletin dÕinformation et de coordination 4: 24-31.

Irigoin, J. (1972) Rgles et recommandations pour les Žditions critiques (sŽrie grecque) (Paris).

Amand de Mendieta, E. (1987) ÒUn problme dÕecdotique. Comment mannier la tradition manuscrite surabandante dÕun ouvrage patristique,Ó in J. Dummer (ed.), Texte und Textcritik. Eine Aufsatzsammlung (Berlin) 29-42.

Reinsch, D. R. (1990) ÒZum Text der Alexias Anna Komnenes,Ó Jahrbuch der šsterreichischen Byzantinistik 40: 233-68.

Kolovou, F. (ed.) (2001) Michaelis Choniatae epistulae (Berlin), ÒProlegomena.Ó

Kolovou, F. (ed.) (2006) Die Briefe des Eustathios von Thessalonike: Einleitung, Regesten, Text, Indizes (Munich and Leipzig).

* Reinsch, D. R. (2008) ÒStixis und Hšren,Ó in Πρακτικά του ΣΤÕ Διεθνούς Συμ¹οσίου: 259-269.

* Jeffreys, M. (2008) ÒTextual Criticism,Ó in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies: 86-94.

Giannouli, A. and E. Schiffer (eds.) (2011) From Manuscripts to Books. Vom Codex zur Edition. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Textual Criticism and Editorial Practice for Byzantine Texts (Vienna, 10-11 December 2009) (Vienna). (An editorial laboratory of medieval texts with a very useful list of editions in progress)

Kihlman, E. and D. Searby (eds.) (2011-) Ars edendi: Lecture Series (Stockholm).


Cf. Huygens, R.B.C. (2000) Ars edendi: A Practical Introduction to Editing Medieval Latin Texts (Turnhout).


Punctuation and Accentuation

Noret, J. (1987) ÒQuand donc rendrons-nous ˆ quantitŽ dÕindŽfinis, prŽtenduement enclitiques, lÕaccent qui leur revient?Ó Byzantion 57: 191-5.

Noret, J. (1995) ÒNotes de ponctuation et dÕaccentuation byzantines,Ó Byzantion 65: 69-88.


Mazzucchi, C. M. (1997) ÒPer una punteggiatura non anacrnositica, e pi efficace, dei testi greci,Ó Bollettino della Badia greca di Grottaferrata 51: 129-43.

Liverani, I. A. (2001) ÒSul sistema di interpunzione in Eustazio di Tessalonica,Ó MEG 1: 187-197.

Laga, C. (2004) ÒLa ponctuation (dont on ne doit pas se soucier),Ó in. B. Janssens, B. Roosen, and P. Van Deun (eds.), Philomathestatos. Studies in Greek and Byzantine Texts Presented to Jacques Noret for his sixty-fifth Birthday (Leuven, Paris, and Dudley, MA) 205-9.

Noret, J. (2007) ÒLes rgles byzantines de la division en syllables,Ó Byzantion 77: 345-8.

* Tocci, R. (2011) ÒKopist vs. Verfasser: Zur Interpunktion im Codex Vatic. gr. 1889 (13. Jh.),Ó Parekbolai 1: 61-86 (



Vernacular Texts

Eideneier, Η., U. Moennig, and N. Toufexis (eds.) (2001) Θεωρία και ¹ράξη των εκδόσεων της υστεροβυζαντινής, αναγεννησιακής και μεταβυζαντινής δημώδους γραμματείας (Herakleion).

Holton, D. (2005) Κωδικογράφοι, συλλέκτες, διασκευαστές και εκδότες. Χειρόγραφα και εκδόσεις της όψιμης Βυζαντινής και ¹ρώιμης νεοελληνικής λογοτεχνίας (Herakleion).

Agapitos, P. A. (2006) Ἀφήγησις Λιβίστρου καὶ Pοδάμνης. Kριτικὴ ἔκδοση τῆς διασκευὴς ÇἄλφαÈ (Athens), introduction.



ÒNew PhilologyÓ

Cerquiglini, B. (1989) Eloge de la variante: Histoire critique de la philologie (Paris; English translation by B. Wing: In Praise of the Variant: A Critical History of Philology (Baltimore 1999).

* Nichols, S. G. (1990) ÒIntroduction: Philology in a Manuscript Culture,Ó in R. H. Bloch and S. G. Nichols (eds.), The New Philology = Speculum 65: 1-10.

Nichols, S. G. (1994) ÒPhilology and its Discontents,Ó in W. D. Paden (ed.), The Future of the Middle Ages: Medieval Literature in the 1990s (Gainesville, Fla.) 113-141.

Sturges, R. S. (1991) ÒTextual ScholarshipÓ; Allen and Rider, Reflections ; special issues of Exemplaria 3, no. 1: 109-31.

Nichols, S. G. and S. Wenzel (1996) The Whole Book: Cultural Perspectives on the Medieval Miscellany (Ann Arbor, Mich.).

Kay, S. (2000) ÒAnalytical Survey 3: The New Philology,Ó in D. Lawton, R. Copeland, and W. Scase (eds.), New Medieval Literatures 3 (Oxford and New York) 295-326.

* Gurd, S. (2004) ÒOn Text-Critical Melancholy,Ó Representations 88: 81–101.

Gurd, S. (2005) Iphigenias at Aulis: Textual Multiplicity, Radical Philology (Ithaca). – For a criticism of the criticism of criticism cf., e.g., (review by R. Mitchell Boyask) [16/11/06].

On various aspects of the medieval miscellany, see now also the 2004 edition of * Segno e testo.

Taylor, A. (2002) Textual Situations. Three Medieval Manuscripts and Their Readers (Philadelphia).

Greetham, D. (forthcoming) The Pleasures of Contamination: Evidence, Text, and Voice in Textual Studies (Bloomington).


New Stemmatics

Saibene, M. G. (ed.) (2009) Medieval Texts - Contemporary Media: The Art and Science of Editing in the Digital Age (Como). (New approaches to stemmatics and ÒgeneticÓ criticism)

cf. the ÒPhylogenetic analysis of Gregory of NazianzusÕ Homily 27Ó in


MacŽ, C., C. T. Schmidt, and J .F. Weiler (2001) ÒLe classement des manuscrits par la statistique et la phylogŽnŽtique: le cas de GrŽgoire de Nazianze et de Basile le Minime,Ó Revue dÕhistoire des texts 31: 227-73.


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January 14, 2013

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